Information

Why are some people attracted to people of other races?

Why are some people attracted to people of other races?


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

  1. Is it true that we were evolved to dislike people of other races genetically?
  2. If so, why are some people attracted to people of races other than their own?

This is in reply to your first question.

Taste - in food, music, and sex - is in part a result of imprinting. You find women or men attractive that are like your parents or the community you grew up in because of sexual imprinting (e.g. Aronsson, 2011).

Aronsson writes of a sensitive period where this imprinting happens, but I am not so sure that the development of aesthetic taste is actually limited to certain phases in a child's development. Caton et al. (2014) showed that children can acquire the taste for "greens" if they are repeatedly exposed to the food (e.g. having to eat one spoon every time spinach is served). And tobacco, beer, and coffee are prime examples for voluntarily "acquired tastes" later in life. Nevertheless, even an acquired taste is a result of exposure and habituation. Coffee, beer and tobacco are not "exotic" in our culture.

Bem (1996) posited the theory that adults find erotic what was exotic in their early childhood. Thus, a girl that felt different from other girls in childhood would become a lesbian, being attracted to what she was not. This theory has been refuted (e.g. Peplau et al., 1998) on the grounds that it was not supported by empirical evidence.

I could not find anything more substantial in psychological research during a cursory search. What I found are books and articles in cultural theory that look at the popularity of exotic women in the media (e.g. Mendible, 2010). Scanning the contents of those books, I thought that maybe men who are attracted to exotic women are not only attracted to their physical appearance, but also to what these women represent. Thus, Latin women may signify lust for life, African men might stand for physical prowess, Asian women might signify servility, or Oriental women might siginify sophistication and mystery. I'm just quoting some common stereotpyes here as examples for how attraction happens not only on the visual level but also in what we project into the person we desire. Men who like women with glasses might not find them visually beautiful, but might be attracted to the idea of an intelligent or "bookish" and shy person, and this fantasy and eroticsim will even hold despite a contradicting personality.

What I want to suggest with this is that reasons for some kinds of attractions might not be systematic (i.e. the same for a large enought group of persons to discover this connection through empirical studies) but widely different between individuals: one white man loving black women might love them for reasons completely unlike those of any other white man loving black women.

But maybe someone else has the time for a more thorough search and will find a study on this subject.


Sources:

  • Aronsson, H. (2011). On Sexual Imprinting in Humans. Available online at http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:415143/FULLTEXT01.pdf
  • Bem, D. J. (1996). Exotic becomes erotic: A developmental theory of sexual orientation. Psychological Review, 103(2), 320. Available online at https://labs.psych.ucsb.edu/roney/james/other%20pdf%20readings/Bem%25201996%2520Exotic%2520becomes%2520erotic.pdf
  • Caton, S. J., Blundell, P., Ahern, S. M., Nekitsing, C., Olsen, A., Møller, P.,… & Hetherington, M. M. (2014). Learning to Eat Vegetables in Early Life: The Role of Timing, Age and Individual Eating Traits. PloS one, 9(5), e97609. Available online at http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0097609
  • Mendible, M. (Ed.). (2010). From bananas to buttocks: The Latina body in popular film and culture. University of texas Press.
  • Peplau, L. A., Garnets, L. D., Spalding, L. R., Conley, T. D., & Veniegas, R. C. (1998). A critique of Bem's" Exotic Becomes Erotic" theory of sexual orientation. Available online at http://folk.uio.no/thomas/gnd/critique-of-ebe-theory.pdf

It is said that American society up to around 1950 came in three flavors, vanilla, chocolate and strawberry. That America was intolerant of interracial marriage, which was against the law in many states.

An ice-cream metaphor for modern American society is Baskin-Robbins' 31 flavors. That society puts a premium on "diversity," including in dating and marriage.

Some people will want "variety" and will seek it through interracial marriage. Others will prefer uniformity and shun it. A third group may be swayed by a "side" factor, such as the chance to upgrade one's genes, or simply because they like a particular person, regardless of race.

But society defines and sometimes restricts our choices. The America of 1950 suppressed the "variety-seeking" type of people, meaning that only the bravest would violate then-prevailing taboos. It was only in the 1970s and later that one found many couples like the parents of (Yankees' baseball player) Derek Jeter (black father, white mother). But the success of that one couple may have encouraged many more.


Why Are People Attracted to Each Other?

Why are people attracted to each other? This is a question that you might have wondered at one point or another. There is actually quite a lot more research on affection and attraction than other subjects.

Maybe it’s because it has always been a simple thing to research. After all, it’s relatively easy to produce attraction in people who don’t know each other. But it can be difficult to encourage and observe romantic relationships over long periods of time.

Elizabeth Barret Browning, the nineteenth-century poet, wrote: “How do I love thee? Let me count the ways.” Browning chooses this way to express her feelings on a subject that’s central in most people’s lives. Attraction is very important for social psychologists.


Contents

People who have dependent personality disorder are overdependent on other people when it comes to making decisions. They cannot make a decision on their own as they need constant approval from other people. Consequently, individuals diagnosed with DPD tend to place needs and opinions of others above their own as they do not have the confidence to trust their decisions. This kind of behaviour can explain why people with DPD tend to show passive and clingy behaviour. These individuals display a fear of separation and cannot stand being alone. When alone, they experience feelings of isolation and loneliness due to their overwhelming dependence on other people. Generally people with DPD are also pessimistic: they expect the worst out of situations or believe that the worst will happen. They tend to be more introverted and are more sensitive to criticism and fear rejection. [3]

People with a history of neglect and an abusive upbringing are more susceptible to develop DPD, specifically those involved in long-term abusive relationships. Those with overprotective or authoritarian parents are also more at risk to develop DPD. Having a family history of anxiety disorder can play a role in the development of DPD as a 2004 twin study found a 0.81 heritability for personality disorders collectively. [4]

The exact cause of dependent personality disorder is unknown. [5] A study in 2012 estimated that between 55% and 72% of the risk of the condition is inherited from one's parents. [6] The difference between a "dependent personality" and a "dependent personality disorder" is somewhat subjective, which makes diagnosis sensitive to cultural influences such as gender role expectations.

Dependent traits in children tended to increase with parenting behaviours and attitudes characterized by overprotectiveness and authoritarianism. Thus the likelihood of developing dependent personality disorder increased, since these parenting traits can limit them from developing a sense of autonomy, rather teaching them that others are powerful and competent. [7]

Traumatic or adverse experiences early in an individual's life, such as neglect and abuse or serious illness, can increase the likelihood of developing personality disorders, including dependent personality disorder, later on in life. This is especially prevalent for those individuals who also experience high interpersonal stress and poor social support. [7]

There is a higher frequency of the disorder seen in women than men, hence expectations relating to gender role may contribute to some extent. [7]

Clinicians and clinical researchers conceptualize dependent personality disorder in terms of four related components:

  • Cognitive: a perception of oneself as powerless and ineffectual, coupled with the belief that other people are comparatively powerful and potent.
  • Motivational: a desire to obtain and maintain relationships with protectors and caregivers.
  • Behavioral: a pattern of relationship-facilitating behavior designed to strengthen interpersonal ties and minimize the possibility of abandonment and rejection.
  • Emotional: fear of abandonment, fear of rejection, and anxiety regarding evaluation by figures of authority. [8]

American Psychiatric Association and DSM Edit

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) contains a dependent personality disorder diagnosis. It refers to a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of which leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation. This begins by early adulthood and can be present in a variety of contexts. [9]

In the DSM Fifth Edition (DSM-5), there is one criterion by which there are eight features of dependent personality disorder. The disorder is indicated by at least five of the following factors: [10]

  1. Has difficulty making everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reassurance from others.
  2. Needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of their life.
  3. Has difficulty expressing disagreement with others because of fear of loss of support or approval.
  4. Has difficulty initiating projects or doing things on their own (because of a lack of self confidence in judgment or abilities rather than a lack of motivation or energy).
  5. Goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others, to the point of volunteering to do things that are unpleasant.
  6. Feels uncomfortable or helpless when alone because of exaggerated fears of being unable to care for themselves.
  7. Urgently seeks another relationship as a source of care and support when a close relationship ends.
  8. Is unrealistically preoccupied with fears of being left to take care of themselves. [11]

The diagnosis of personality disorders in the fourth edition Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, including dependent personality disorder, was found to be problematic due to reasons such as excessive diagnostic comorbidity, inadequate coverage, arbitrary boundaries with normal psychological functioning, and heterogeneity among individuals within the same categorial diagnosis. [12]

World Health Organization Edit

The World Health Organization's ICD-10 lists dependent personality disorder as F60.7 Dependent personality disorder: [13]

  1. Encouraging or allowing others to make most of one's important life decisions
  2. Subordination of one's own needs to those of others on whom one is dependent, and undue compliance with their wishes
  3. Unwillingness to make even reasonable demands on the people one depends on
  4. Feeling uncomfortable or helpless when alone, because of exaggerated fears of inability to care for oneself
  5. Preoccupation with fears of being abandoned by a person with whom one has a close relationship, and of being left to care for oneself
  6. Limited capacity to make everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reassurance from others.
  • Asthenic, inadequate, passive, and self-defeating personality (disorder)

It is a requirement of ICD-10 that a diagnosis of any specific personality disorder also satisfies a set of general personality disorder criteria.

SWAP-200 Edit

The SWAP-200 is a diagnostic tool that was proposed with the goal of overcoming limitations, such as limited external validity for the diagnostic criteria for dependent personality disorder, to the DSM. It serves as a possible alternative nosological system that emerged from the efforts to create an empirically based approach to personality disorders - while also preserving the complexity of clinical reality. [10] Dependent personality disorder is considered a clinical prototype in the context of the SWAP-200. Rather than discrete symptoms, it provides composite description characteristic criteria - such as personality tendencies. [10]

Based on the Q-Sort method and prototype matching, the SWAP-200 is a personality assessment procedure relying on an external observer's judgment. It provides:

  • A personality diagnosis expressed as the matching with ten prototypical descriptions of DSM-IV personality disorders.
  • A personality diagnosis based on the matching of the patient with 11 Q-factors of personality derived empirically.
  • A dimensional profile of healthy and adaptive functioning. [10]

The traits that define dependent personality disorder according to SWAP-200 are:

  1. They tend to become attached quickly and/or intensely, developing feelings and expectations that are not warranted by the history or context of the relationship.
  2. Since they tend to be ingratiating and submissive, people with DPD tend to be in relationships in which they are emotionally or physically abused.
  3. They tend to feel ashamed, inadequate, and depressed.
  4. They also feel powerless and tend to be suggestible.
  5. They are often anxious and tend to feel guilty.
  6. These people have difficulty acknowledging and expressing anger and struggle to get their own needs and goals met.
  7. Unable to soothe or comfort themselves when distressed, they require involvement of another person to help regulate their emotions. [10]

Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual Edit

The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM) approaches dependent personality disorder in a descriptive, rather than prescriptive sense and has received empirical support. The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual includes two different types of dependent personality disorder: [10]

The PDM-2 adopts and applies a prototypic approach, using empirical measures like the SWAP-200. It was influenced by a developmental and empirically grounded perspective, as proposed by Sidney Blatt. [10] This model is of particular interest when focusing on dependent personality disorder, claiming that psychopathology comes from distortions of two main coordinates of psychological development:

The anaclitic personality organization in individuals exhibits difficulties in interpersonal relatedness, exhibiting the following behaviours:

  • Preoccupation with relationships
  • Fear of abandonment and of rejection
  • Seeking closeness and intimacy
  • Difficulty managing interpersonal boundaries
  • Tend to have an anxious-preoccupied attachment style. [10]

Introjective personality style is associated with problems in self-definition. [10]

Differential diagnosis Edit

There are similarities between individuals with dependent personality disorder and individuals with borderline personality disorder, in that they both have a fear of abandonment. Those with dependent personality disorder do not exhibit impulsive behaviour, unstable affect, and poor self-image experienced by those with borderline personality disorder, differentiating the two disorders. [14]

The following conditions commonly coexist (comorbid) with dependent personality disorder: [15]

People who have DPD are generally treated with psychotherapy. The main goal of this therapy is to make the individual more independent and help them form healthy relationships with the people around them. This is done by improving their self-esteem and confidence. [16]

Medication can be used to treat patients who suffer from depression or anxiety because of their DPD, but this does not treat the core problems caused by DPD. Individuals who take these prescription drugs are susceptible to addiction and substance abuse and therefore may require monitoring. [16]

Based on a recent survey of 43,093 Americans, 0.49% of adults meet diagnostic criteria for DPD (National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC Grant et al., 2004). [17] Traits related to DPD, like most personality disorders emerge in childhood or early adulthood. Findings from the NESArC study found that 18 to 29 year olds have a greater chance of developing DPD. DPD is more common among women compared to men as 0.6% of women have DPD compared to 0.4% of men. [3]

A 2004 twin study suggests a heritability of 0.81 for developing dependent personality disorder. Because of this, there is significant evidence that this disorder runs in families. [4]

Children and adolescents with a history of anxiety disorders and physical illnesses are more susceptible to acquiring this disorder. [18]

Millon's subtypes Edit

Psychologist Theodore Millon identified five adult subtypes of dependent personality disorder. [19] [20] Any individual dependent may exhibit none or one of the following:

Subtype Description Personality Traits
Disquieted dependent Including avoidant features Restlessly perturbed disconcerted and fretful feels dread and foreboding apprehensively vulnerable to abandonment lonely unless near supportive figures.
Selfless dependent Including masochistic features Merges with and immersed into another is engulfed, enshrouded, absorbed, incorporated, willingly giving up own identity becomes one with or an extension of another.
Immature dependent Variant of "pure" pattern Unsophisticated, half-grown, unversed, childlike undeveloped, inexperienced, gullible, and unformed incapable of assuming adult responsibilities.
Accommodating dependent Including histrionic features Gracious, neighborly, eager, benevolent, compliant, obliging, agreeable denies disturbing feelings adopts submissive and inferior role well.
Ineffectual dependent Including schizoid features Unproductive, gainless, incompetent, meritless seeks untroubled life refuses to deal with difficulties untroubled by shortcomings.

The conceptualization of dependency, within classical psychoanalytic theory, is directly related to Freud's oral psychosexual stage of development. Frustration or over-gratification was said to result in an oral fixation and in an oral type of character, characterized by feeling dependent on others for nurturance and by behaviours representative of the oral stage. Later psychoanalytic theories shifted the focus from a drive-based approach of dependency to the recognition of the importance of early relationships and establishing separation from these early caregivers, in which the exchanges between the caregiver and the child become internalized, and the nature of these interactions becomes part of the concepts of the self and of others. [10]


Why Are People Attracted to Each Other?

Why are people attracted to each other? This is a question that you might have wondered at one point or another. There is actually quite a lot more research on affection and attraction than other subjects.

Maybe it’s because it has always been a simple thing to research. After all, it’s relatively easy to produce attraction in people who don’t know each other. But it can be difficult to encourage and observe romantic relationships over long periods of time.

Elizabeth Barret Browning, the nineteenth-century poet, wrote: “How do I love thee? Let me count the ways.” Browning chooses this way to express her feelings on a subject that’s central in most people’s lives. Attraction is very important for social psychologists.


Why men and women find longer legs more attractive

Men are not alone in finding the leggier form more attractive. Women consider longer-legged men more physically appealing than their stumpier counterparts, a study has found.

Research involving more than 200 men and women revealed that people whose legs are 5% longer than average are considered the most attractive, regardless of their gender.

Studies into sexual attraction have already shown that taller people are generally perceived as being more physically appealing to the opposite sex, but until now little was known about the effect a person's leg length had on their overall attractiveness.

Psychologists led by Boguslaw Pawlowski at the University of Wroclaw in Poland investigated by asking 218 male and female volunteers to rank the attractiveness of seven men and seven women from digitally altered images.

While all of the people were the same height, the length of their legs was altered to make them equal to the Polish average or longer by 5%, 10% or 15%.

The team found that regardless of the volunteers' own body shape and leg length, people whose legs were 5% longer than average were rated as the most attractive. The next most appealing was an average leg length, or those that were 10% longer than normal.

The scientists believe there are good evolutionary reasons for the preference. "Long legs are a sign of health," Pawlowski told New Scientist magazine.

Previous research has linked shorter legs with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and obesity-related type 2 diabetes in both sexes.

Shorter-legged men are also more likely to have higher levels of triglycerides, which are linked to arterial disease and strokes.

Although the study only looked at Polish people, Pawlowski suspects the effect to be common across cultures.

Martin Tovee, a reader in visual cognition at Newcastle University, said longer legs were one of many subtle cues that suggest good health, especially in women.

"Leg length is a good indicator of childhood nutrition in women because their legs stop growing once they reach puberty. So if a woman has long legs it suggests she grew up in a good environment and that has a positive effect on fertility.

"The effect in men is more subtle, because their legs continue to grow beyond puberty," he said.


Why Are People Attracted To Certain Hair Colors?

Our perceptions of hair color largely seem like the sort of thing used by bad stand-up comics: "dumb blondes," "redheads with bad tempers," and so on. But, as we'll discover, stereotypes can have deep-seated roots in psychology, and our attitudes to hair color have been theorized to correspond to everything from genetic evolution to the likelihood of cancer. No, really. Attraction is rarely a simple thing, and it seems that our opinions about the attractiveness of various hair colors, natural or otherwise, are drawn from a combination of historical reference, cultural prejudices, possible ideas about rarity and disease protection, and a bunch of other factors. Plus, "finding something attractive," as we'll see, isn't necessarily the same as pursuing it.

Ideals about hair color have changed radically throughout European history the Pre-Raphaelites were besotted by crimson locks, as is evident in their paintings, while Renaissance Italians fetishized blonde hair and produced incredibly dangerous and foul-smelling dyes to be able to obtain it. Blonde hair caused a minor row in 2007 when a Japanese diplomat suggested it was what was holding back Americans in negotiating in the Middle East. All the studies mentioned in this article were done in Western areas by scientists focusing on American or European perspectives, so we can't necessarily take them as a global lesson but as a reflection of local attitudes about hair color, sexuality, attractiveness, and mate choice, they're pretty fascinating.

Here's some of the science about the Western world's attitude towards hair color and what it means for our behavior. There's a glaring lack of science about how hair color preference operates among the LGBT community, for instance, or in cultures where one hair color tends to be the norm (for instance, among the Japanese) but it does seem as if the psychology of hair color and attraction is more complex than just "blondes having more fun".

1. Blonde Women Really Do Receive More Attention From Men (But For A Sad Reason)

It seems that, for straight males at least, the attraction to blondes is real, though it may not be for the reasons we traditionally believe. A now-famous French study published in 2012 wanted to establish what hair colors attracted the most attention from men in nightclubs, and what that might mean. French scientist Nicolas Guéguen from the Université de Bretagne-Sud did a series of studies that aimed to measure male interest in hair colors: he set up experiments in which women in different-colored wigs sat in a nightclub and waited for male approaches, not counting those of staff.

The results were fascinating: 127 men approached "blonde" women, brunettes scored 84 approaches, black-haired ones 82, and redheads (now this is a surprise) a meagre 29. Redheads, it seems, are not the dynamic, sexual Joan Holloways of the conventional playing field. Guéguen had predicted this outcome: he noted in the introduction to the study that previous research has indicated that blonde women going door-to-door raise more money than brunettes, and blonde waitresses gain more tips. It's important to note a few restrictions on this study: it took place in one city in France, and it's not noted whether the women or the men approaching them were people of color. Cultural expectations about beauty and local ideals can be influencing the field of play, here.

But there's more to this. Psychologists Raj Persaud and Adrian Furnham point out in their examination of the research at Psychology Today that the attraction to blondes may not necessarily be a compliment they cite a study from the University of Westminster that asked men in nightclubs about their opinions about female hair color, and discovered that brunettes are actually seen as the most confident, while blondes are seen as "needier" and therefore easier to approach without rejection. So in a practical sense, an approach in a nightclub doesn't necessarily tie to the peak of attraction it's also based on a judgement about how likely somebody is to reject you.

2. . But Straight Women Prefer Brown-Haired Men To Blondes

A fascinating study done by the dating website WhatsYourPrice.com revealed that straight women's preferences for hair color are actually quite different to those of men. You can liken an online dating situation to that of a nightclub, in that the likelihood of being rejected as a stranger is one of the primary factors in decision-making but women, rather than going for "approachable" blonde men, avoided them entirely, giving them less notice than redheads or brunettes (who were the clear favorite). Blonde men, it seems, were perceived as low-commitment and unreliable brunettes were likely favored for their steadiness and earning potential. What in women can be a (slight) advantage is, in the long-term dating market, a possible drawback for men.

3. The Attraction To Blondes May Also Be Based On Rarity

The anthropologist Peter Frost has suggested a potential reason for the desire for blondes on an evolutionary level: a search for a mate who's unusual and eye-catching. The Huffington Post reported that his theory is based on the idea of mate choice as determined by novelty. In other words, blondes attract attention because they're seen by our primitive brains as "new" and "exciting," as natural blonde hair in adulthood is rarer than brunette or black.

Frost's theory is about scarcity. "The more common a hair color becomes, the less often it is preferred," he explained. "It's a kind of novelty effect. The moment you become ordinary, you no longer have the same appeal. There's selection for being a bit different and eye-catching." It would have been a theory understood by ancient Roman women, who were renowned for attempting to bleach their hair or wear wigs made of the hair of blonde German slaves to capture the rare color for themselves.

However, there's a problem with this: being a natural redhead is one of the rarest hair colors in the world, and yet, as we saw with Guéguen's study, it's not seen as a lure at all. If rarity were the only factor in play, surely a woman with flame-red hair would be seen as the most attractive in a selection of choices but it doesn't work like that.

4. Bias Against Redheads May Be Both Genetic & Societal

Natural flaming ginger locks are stupendously rare worldwide, and people who've experienced the rejection of a situation like Guéguen's study likely make its appearance even rarer by dyeing it to something more "acceptable". So why aren't we inclined to love gingers? A landmark editorial in The Week in 2014 brought together a variety of scientific theories to explain why rarity doesn't mean love for the redheads. One possibility is that freckles, the common accompaniment to red hair, signal to potential mates that there's a high possibility of cancer another is that red hair may also demonstrate that there hasn't been a lot of genetic mixing in the person's ancestry, and research shows that in some situations, genetic diversity can make somebody more attractive.

European gingers are also dealing with a lot of historical prejudices and old beliefs medieval Europeans in particular were distrustful of redheads, portraying Judas Iscariot as a red-haired man. Redheaded women have earned sexual, explosive reputations: Jacky Colliss Harvey's History Of The Redhead explains that everybody from Mary Magdalene to Cleopatra was associated with red hair, and that the Romans tended to pair it with ideas of barbarism, over-emotionality and violence. Essentially, it's had a bad rap.

5. There Appears To Be An Increasing Preference Among Men For Brunette Partners

Let's go back to that University of Westminster study collating different stereotypes of hair with what men say they want. It's been determined that this actually goes deeper than we might have thought another study, done by City University in London, asked 1,500 men to attribute qualities to pictures of female redheads, blondes, and brunettes, and then collected what they found. The overall picture? Men found brunettes the most attractive, but it went further than that: they also rated them the most "stable" and "intelligent," blondes the most "approachable" and "youthful," and redheads the most "fiery" (a throwback to old beliefs about redheads and their tempers, though it does seem that ginger people are indeed more physically sensitive than others to pain).

The increased preference for brunettes may, the researchers believe, involve a shifting in mate priorities. Whereas previous generations of men wanted a young, approachable partner (i.e. a stereotypical blonde), these ones want an "equal partnership," with a wife or girlfriend who can hold their ground and possess equal earning potential. Stereotypes dictate that blondes are too malleable and redheads too emotionally volatile, while brunettes are seen as "just right". And obviously, these biases are just that: stereotypes.

Images: Marko Klaric / EyeEm/EyeEm/Getty Images Giphy


The Psychology of Misogyny & Misogynistic People

Most of us are familiar with the term &ldquomisogyny.&rdquo Today, we regularly hear it in conversation. And we regularly see it all over social media.

And yet, misogyny, or misogynist, is largely misunderstood.

The dictionary defines misogyny as a hatred, dislike, or mistrust of women, said Jill A. Stoddard, PhD, a psychologist and director of The Center for Stress and Anxiety Management in San Diego. The word, she noted, has Greek origins: &ldquomisein,&rdquo meaning &ldquoto hate,&rdquo and gyn&emacr, meaning &ldquowoman.&rdquo

However, misogyny goes beyond despising all or even most women.

Rather, &ldquomisogyny is hostility toward the women who threaten to remove the male status as superior to women,&rdquo said Stoddard, author of the book Be Mighty: A Woman&rsquos Guide to Liberation from Anxiety, Worry, and Stress Using Mindfulness and Acceptance.

&ldquoIn other words, men in a patriarchy do what they want, when they want, how they want, and women are expected to support and promote those entitlements,&rdquo she said.

The Many Faces of Misogyny

What does misogyny look like?

According to Stoddard, &ldquoincels,&rdquo a group of &ldquoinvoluntary celibates,&rdquo are a clear example. &ldquoThey see women as objects and feel entitled to engage in sexual interactions with them. They believe women who reject them are evil and do not take responsibility for their role in being rejected by women&mdashthat role being their sexist attitudes toward women.&rdquo

However, misogyny isn&rsquot restricted to men. Anyone can be a misogynist, said Joanne Bagshaw, LCPC, a therapist in Gaithersburg, Maryland and author of The Feminist Handbook: Practical Tools to Resist Sexism and Dismantle the Patriarchy.

According to Bagshaw, misogyny is &ldquoan enforcer of sexism,&rdquo because it rewards &ldquowomen who follow society&rsquos prescribed gender norms and patriarchal expectations&rdquo and punishes &ldquothose that don&rsquot.&rdquo

&ldquo[A]ny of us can police women to maintain a male-dominated society, by enforcing us to stay within our prescribed role,&rdquo Bagshaw said. She noted that this idea comes from the book Down Girl written by philosopher Kate Manne.

One example of policing is slut-shaming women &ldquofor acting in ways outside of what is expected for women to act sexually,&rdquo she said.

Another example is praising moms for maintaining the role of the selfless nurturer. &ldquoWe don&rsquot ever see women who have careers told what good mothers they are for working, for instance, even though they are providing for their family,&rdquo Bagshaw said.

Misogyny can also look like perpetuating devastating (and ludicrous) stereotypes: During an interview, Donna Rotunno, Harvey Weinstein&rsquos attorney, was asked whether she&rsquos been sexually assaulted. She replied: &ldquoNo, because I would never have put myself in that position.&rdquo

While Rotunno&rsquos response was likely a legal strategy, Bagshaw noted, &ldquoshe is using a dangerous yet common stereotype about rape victims to defend Weinstein, in order to manipulate a win in this case.&rdquo

The Consequences of Misogyny

Not surprisingly, misogyny has massive consequences for both men and women. Stoddard noted that in women, misogyny predicts poor health outcomes. In men, she said, misogynistic attitudes increase risk for substance use and depression.

Research has found that misogyny in men has also been linked to violence, delinquency, unsafe sexual behaviors, and intimate partner violence (toward women).

What Causes Misogyny?

Why do some people adopt misogynistic attitudes while others don&rsquot?

According to Stoddard, &ldquothis is a complex question with equally complex answers.&rdquo

Several researchers, she said, have proposed that people develop misogynistic beliefs because of strict masculine gender norms. A 2016 paper in PLoS One defined gender norms as: &ldquothe widely accepted social rules about roles, traits, behaviors, status and power associated with masculinity and femininity in a given culture.&rdquo

For example, masculine gender norms often include traits and behaviors like being strong, stubborn, stoic, muscular, and macho. Others include authority, leadership, and dominance. They include beliefs such as: &ldquoIt&rsquos a husband&rsquos job to earn money,&rdquo and &ldquoit&rsquos a wife&rsquos job to look after the home and family.&rdquo

Other researchers have identified emotional suppression as a culprit, she said. Similarly, Bagshaw believes that men think they deserve special privileges, and when this belief is challenged, &ldquothey lack the emotion regulation skills to manage their feelings of rejection and or shame.&rdquo

Bagshaw blames gender role conditioning: Even though boys and men are absolutely capable of expressing rejection, shame, and other vulnerable emotions, they&rsquore generally not taught how to actually express them (and really to even accept these emotions and view them as valid). She called this combination of entitlement and emotional skill deficit a &ldquopotentially dangerous mix that, at the very least, will make their romantic partnerships difficult, and for some, increase their risk of perpetrating violence.&rdquo

Stoddard added that other researchers speculate that boys&rsquo early maternal relationships may shape their attitudes toward other women.

In short, she said, &ldquoThe &lsquotrue&rsquo answer is probably some complicated combination of these and other factors within both the individual and his culture.&rdquo

Can Misogynists Change?

&ldquoEveryone is capable of change once they see the harm or cost of their ways and actually care about and take responsibility for it,&rdquo Stoddard said.

Bagshaw, a couple&rsquos counselor, has worked with men who were motivated to change in order to save their sinking marriages. &ldquoThe threat of actually losing their partner who they loved even though they treated as inferior in many ways was enough for them to change.&rdquo

Bagshaw has witnessed men who never expressed their feelings and saw zero benefit in doing so, open up and share, &ldquomuch to their partner&rsquos delight and relief.&rdquo Other male clients started helping to care for their children and do household chores.

(&ldquoThere is still a significant gender gap in household tasks in the home that is detrimental to marriages,&rdquo she said. &ldquoEven working women whose husbands are unemployed do more household work than their husbands.&rdquo)

Bagshaw has also helped men change their sexist beliefs, such as no longer objectifying women or using offensive terms about women.

To truly dismantle misogyny, both Stoddard and Bagshaw stressed the importance of implementing structural, systemic changes.

This &ldquorequires that the privileged men in positions of power accept that women can be equals without it signifying they have &lsquolost&rsquo or been harmed in some way,&rdquo Stoddard said. According to Bagshaw, we must create policies and laws that promote equity, &ldquolike closing the wage gap, and protecting women from violence.&rdquo


Why white women are s3xually attracted by black men black women by white men

There is evident increase in interracial dating in the US, and also across Europe, many of which lead to marriage. This trend has seen black men becoming more attracted to white women, and white men becoming attracted to black women. Since the 1967 US Supreme Court decision that fully legalised interracial marriage in all the states, this practice has not witnessed as much of such cases as since 2000, according to statistics.

In 1970, revealed a Stanford University study, there were only 65,000 marriages involving African-Americans and whites. In 2005, that number had grown to 422,000. Among all interracial couples, they represented two percent of marriages in 1970. In 2005, that number was up to seven percent of the 59 million marriages in the United States.

So, what is responsible for this growing trend? “Some of the growth can be accounted for by declining societal prejudice towards – and less shame experienced by – people in interracial marriages”, says encyclopedia.com. It goes on to add that couples tend to start a relationship based on four important reasons: the attractiveness of the partner, shared common interests, shared similar entertainment interests, and socio-economic similarities.

Sexual attraction

Of all these, reports indicate that the attractiveness, comfortability and compatibility of the couple’s sexuality is the primary reason for interracial dating, and every relationship that leads to marriage starts with dating. The choice, says one expert, mainly lies with the female partner, as a woman has the final say in every relationship: either to accept or turn down a proposal. As sexual satisfaction and compatibility are of paramount importance to their happiness, her happiness lies on how much her man satisfies her romantically.

“Partners in interracial relationships reported significantly higher relationship satisfaction compared to those in intraracial relationships”, says Research Gate, a US-based study group. However, no differences were found for conflict or attachment style, and no differences found between interracial and intraracial relationships in relationship quality, conflict patterns, relationship efficacy, coping style, and attachment.

White woman/black man, black woman/white man sexuality

Different experts and commentators have ascribed sexual satisfaction as the major reason white women date black men. “Mudshark” is the word most white guys in the US and across Europe use in describing such women, though in contempt as they insist the women engage in it out of low esteem as they are not good enough for the white guys. Other reasons given by these men are that these women hold the misconception that white men are not masculine enough compared with the blacks, which lead them to experiment with black guys that the white women also do it in rebellion against the old prejudice of whites against blacks, and in the process drawing attention to themselves.

One white male respondent on a popular Facebook chat group even accused the mudsharks of longing for the ‘‘filling’’ mythical black manhood, based on the belief that blacks are more virile and better endowed ‘‘down there’’. The position of these whites has been that the relationships do not last long and often end in heartbreak for the white women. However, this cannot be entirely acceptable, considering the growing number of interracial marriages between white women and black men in the US and across the Atlantic. This clearly smacks of envy on the part of the whites.

A white girl on a popular chat group girlsaskguys, recently posted a question: ‘‘Ladies, have you ever had sex with a black guy?’’ The responses she received were as varied as they were revealing: one said no, but she looked looked forward to it, and wanted to know if the enquirer has done so, for her to reveal the experience.

Another revealed she has done it with many black guys, that she ‘‘enjoyed most of it’’ and described black men as confident, and recommended every white girl should try it. The enquirer then asked: “So are they bigger in the pants or is this myth?” To which the I-Have-Done-It responded: “It’s basically a myth, but as with any race of guys, some do come along with very large sholongs. Can’t say that more of the black race has them than any other, though!”

Still on girlsaskguys, a white male member posted: “Do black men have a higher stamina and length compared to white guys? I have just had my black girlfriend, and I am feeling pressured!” And he explained his predicament: “I have just got together with a black girl.

The first one I have been with and I’m her first white guy. We were talking about sex the other night and she put some doubts in me because she was like she had only been with black men and she said that they are better equipped and last longer. Now, I don’t have problems in my ability or myself. Its just made me feel pressured. Am I correct to feel this, and was her statement correct? Just feeling a bit pressured.”

One white male respondent posted: “It’s a myth.” Another posted: “I’m not black and I have a horse cock”, and added: “They call me ‘cockzilla’.”

It is clear that the controversy of black men having better libido than white men has contributed to the drive for white women seeking out black men. However, can the same be said about foreplay and romance between a black man and a white man? Investigations revealed that white men are better than black men in that department.

That perhaps explains why the number of black women dating whites is rising almost at the same rate as white women urging for black men, as the black women apparently find the white men exotic, fascinating and exciting in foreplay, especially oral sex, before the real thing. Writing on the chat group, NIA (Nigerians in America), some years back, Dr. Sabella Ogbobode Abidde, a US-based Nigerian writer posted about a meeting with friends and her ideas for her next work: “I am going to tell the story of two men, one white and one black, and their experiences with sexing outside their race.” Then she posted her admiration for oral sex and foreplay as promoted by whites, especially white men.

Also from girlsaskguys was the poser from a white girl: “Do black guys like to give oral sex just as much as white guys do?” And the inquiry: “I’ve had white and black boyfriends and I noticed that all my white boyfriends had no problem going down on me but some of my black boyfriends just would not do it. Why is that? Is it just that the black guys I picked don’t give oral sex? Or maybe the white boyfriends, for some funny reasons, are more into pleasing their girl than the black guys?”

One white female respondent posted: “Not to be racist but black guys tend to be more cocky and better than what others think of them …. This goes for the friends and people I know. They say ‘I’m too good to eat pussy and shit’, while the white guy is more of a gentleman.” Then another white female posted: “Don’t make an assumption about all black people just from the ones that you know.”

There was almost uniformity in their comments that white men are far better than black men in foreplay and romance because the whites are naturally warm and caring and are out to please their women almost selflessly.

There is no doubt that, while white women enjoy foreplay, they are more attracted by the virility of the black man and while black women equally like their fellow strong and long-lasting blacks, they find the patience and gentlemanliness to please them by the whites to be romantically exciting.

However, statistics has shown that there are more cases of white women going for black men than vice versa. Investigations have revealed that, in the US and across Europe, many male migrant black Africans, especially illegal migrants, take advantage of this trend to watch out for white women, and eventually get married to them, in order to secure citizenship status or resident permit.

Human hormones

Can these rising cases of racial attraction be traced to the human hormones which is said to be produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood to stimulate specific cells or tissues into sexual behaviour?

The role of the human hormones in sexual desire has often posed challenges to sex experts and researchers. What drives sexual desire? What is the root cause of that urge to have sex and how? Different theories have been propounded by different experts. They all boil down to the hormones.

However, unlike what some believe, there is nothing like male and female hormones, according to medical experts at the Inner Balance Health Centre, Loveland, Colorado, US a claim which has also been supported by other medical experts. In its April 20, 2012 newsletter, Inner Balance Health Centre researchers stated that “Technically, these two categories (male and female hormones) don’t exist. The sex hormones: estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone are found in everyone but in different proportions and with unique functions. It is the balance of all three hormones in the body that promotes health and sexual vitality.”

However, estrogen is usually thought of as a “female” hormone because in women, it is made in the ovaries, adrenal glands, and fat cells and its levels are higher in those of reproductive age. In healthy amounts, it promotes growth of the uterine lining during the first half of the menstrual cycle, contributes to sexuality in many ways, helps prevent bone loss, and works toward maintaining good cholesterol levels, according to experts. In men, small amounts of estrogen are made as a by-product of testosterone conversion.

And testosterone, considered the male hormone because it is produced in the testicles and to a lesser degree in the adrenal glands, helps build muscle tone, increases energy, contributes to a healthy libido, and aids in sperm production. Levels decline with age and with high stress in the body. The third sex steroid frequently mentioned for sexual health is pregesterone, which in women, is produced in the ovaries and through ovulation. It basically balances the unwanted effects of estrogen.

So, can this new trend in interracial relationship be traced to the hormones? Investigation revealed that medical and sex experts have not devoted time to relate the hormones to why white women are now attracted to black men and black women attracted to white men. However, it is apparent that sexual appeal and compatible sexuality are the major driving force behind this trend.


Are psychopaths dreamy?

Now Badgley’s character is one of fiction which may explain why so many fans have admitted they are sexually attracted to Joe despite knowing about all his very gruesome shortcomings. Badgley had a take on why people would be attracted to such a disturbing person.

“I don’t see him as a portrayal of a real person, I see him as a representation of the part of us that identifies with him. The part of us that is a troll that part of us that is victim blaming the part of us that is privileged and blind. We’re meant to identify with him,” he said in a recent interview.

But, with Bundy, it is a bit different as this was a real person, also known for his handsome looks and charming personality as well as confessing to the murder of 30 women (but the actual number is unknown.)  

“The most exciting thing for me was being able to sort of lend that Ted Bundy charisma to the part,” Efron told E! News. “I hope that’s what comes across the most … The most interesting and exciting thing for me to contribute to the movie was Ted had this thing about him, this facade, his charm, and the way that he worked with people.

𠇊 lot of people in prison loved him. Cops that knew him seemed to think he was an OK guy. It wasn’t until after he fully admitted to everything that most of the world really believed that Ted was even capable of these things. He pulled the wool over our eyes.”

But in addition to the fandom for Efron, there is also a Netflix਍ocuseries, Conversations With a Killer: The Ted Bundy Tapes, that has been sparking a lot of interest from young girls on the aesthetic appeal of the real-life Bundy. There were so many Tweets about Bundy’s “hotness” Netflix actually released the following:

I&aposve seen a lot of talk about Ted Bundy’s alleged hotness and would like to gently remind everyone that there are literally THOUSANDS of hot men on the service — almost all of whom are not convicted serial murderers

— Netflix US (@netflix) January 28, 2019

But a lot of it clearly just comes down to charm and looks, which means you probably aren’t a psychopath yourself. Criminologist Dr. Melissa Hamilton from the University of Surrey School of Law told SheKnows.com: “If they are handsome, they likely have learned to use that beauty to their advantage in further being able to attract, seduce and control women. Ted Bundy is a clear example of this. Beautiful men who have always received positive and trusting attention may become more self-confident, which is itself another factor that attracts women’s confidence.”

There also is the notion of disbelief that people have with very attractive people. They almost can’t fathom that someone so attractive could be capable of such heinous crimes. Our brain has trouble processing such contrasting depictions of one person. It can’t make sense of it.

The study also found that in its subset of undergraduate women, they tended to show a preference for the psychopathic qualities which could really come down to age and experience:

“Given their young age, undergraduates tend to have fewer relationship experiences than do older adults, and thus probably have a more limited history of adverse experiences associated with dating people with pronounced psychopathic traits, such as experiencing infidelity … intimate partner violence … or emotional unavailability … Although females may express a preference for psychopathic males in principle, such enthusiasm may dwindle or even disappear following either a direct or vicarious negative romantic experience. Moreover, the undergraduate dating culture may possess unique characteristics (e..g, close-knit social networks, Greek life, increased prevalence of alcohol and drug use) that may not generalize to dating outside of college, and as such attraction to psychopathic males may decrease with time … “

Interestingly though, the study found that men tend to be more attracted to women with psychopathic qualities and not vice versa even though the mania is around these handsome male serial killers.

The study also found that it wasn’t just the subjects who had more psychopathic characteristics that also found psychopaths attractive. Those with histrionic, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, schizotypal, passive-aggressive, self-defeating, antisocial, paranoid, borderline, avoidant, dependent, and sadistic personality traits also were attracted to psychopaths.


The psychology of bondage: Why do people like to be restrained?

SALON PREMIUM --> (Getty/Azzazelius)

Shares

Excerpted from "The Ultimate Guide to Bondage" by Mistress Couple (Cleis Press, 2018). Reprinted with permission of Cleis Press.

No matter who we are or where we come from, we all share the same first bondage experience&mdashbeing bound within the safe confines of the womb, literally tethered to our mothers via the umbilical cord. While it might not be very sexy to think about bondage in this context, doing so explains a lot about why people enjoy the sensations of restraint and encasement.

Floating in the cushion of amniotic fluid inside the uterus, we are all informed by our senses. As early as eleven weeks into pregnancy, we, as fetuses, develop the sensation of touch, and we begin to explore the boundaries of our own bodies and the womb that encapsulates us. Ultrasound scans taken during this time show babies &ldquotouching their buttocks, holding onto the umbilical cord, turning and walking up and down the amniotic sac wall on the inside,&rdquo15 according to Heidelise Als, associate professor of psychology at Harvard Medical School and Children&rsquos Hospital Boston. We are not still and quiet in the womb as many believe on the contrary, we exist to explore the variety of sensations that life has to offer.

Als believes that fetuses use touch to both soothe and.

&ldquoFetuses are laying down their own cortical networks in the brain. . . . When babies are born prematurely . . . you will see these little preemies trying to bring their hands together or bring their hands to their face, or lay them over their head and their ear. . . . They search, literally, with their feet to try to find a boundary.&rdquo16

What we learn from these poor little preemie babies (I was one of them!) is that knowing where our boundaries are is soothing to us. The cute feeling that expecting mothers often describe as the baby kicking might actually be the baby trying to locate and hold boundaries. An overly firm touch on a pregnant belly is known to cause the baby to move away or stick out their arm as if to hold a boundary. Likewise, a delicate or gentle touch creates a reaction that seems to welcome the sensation across the boundary. From the moment that we learn to feel, boundaries become incredibly important to us. We identify the boundaries of our own skin and the lush space that envelops us. This is the beginning of our adventure with bondage.

Other senses such as taste and hearing are developed and honed within the womb. These senses contribute to emotional bonding with the outside world, by allowing us to hear the voices of our parents, taste the foods our mother is eating, and grow accustomed to sensations that we will experience once we&rsquove entered the world. We will look for the familiar to soothe us once we&rsquove left the womb. The environment inside the womb is so perfect for an unborn child that it influences our preferences for the rest of our lives.

When our mother&rsquos water breaks, the membrane that holds the amniotic fluid that we were floating in ruptures. This signal that the baby is coming is also the destruction of the world as we knew it. Our first boundary disappears in a flash, and we are squeezed through a tight canal, out into the open world. Our reward for entering this brand-new terrain? The umbilical cord that carried oxygen and nutrients to us inside the womb, the literal tie to our mothers, is cut. In doing so, we break free from the boundaries of our mother&rsquos body and create a new physical boundary of our own. What an exciting day!

To aid with the overwhelming sensation of being in a completely new environment, and the loss of connection to our mothers, we are swaddled in blankets or clothes. This helps to mimic the sensation of being inside the womb, keeping us calm and warm. Most babies love to be swaddled, but the ones that don&rsquot still enjoy being held tightly by their parents. Being held by our parents, touched, fed, and cared for constitute emotional bonding. Even though the physical bonds no longer exist between us and our mothers, feeling their skin against ours is incredibly soothing for us both and allows for us to grow closer together.17

When you think about it in this context, you can see why simply even coming into existence is related to bondage. We break free from our physical bonds to become our own people, and once we do, we seek the comfort and safety that we experienced within the womb. Emotional bonds with loved ones help to provide that for us until we are old enough to start seeking out those sources of comfort on our own. No wonder so many of us enjoy practicing restraint with our lovers! Whether we are conscious of it or not, it reminds us of our wombic experience and provides the comfort that we&rsquove sought since coming into the world.

Recreating the wombic experience through restraint

Just as mothers create life by delivering children from the confines of their bodies into the open air, we can give birth to new ideas, experiences, and levels of understanding through our exploration of bondage. The theme of drawing thoughts and feelings that are buried deep inside us out into the light where we can see them is a recurring one in the exploration of bondage. As adults, we don&rsquot often have the opportunities to express our innermost feelings and desires. In many cases, we become unaware of them because we live in an age when business and distraction are lauded and held above self-exploration. People are constantly on the go, buzzing from one activity to the next, rarely stopping to smell the flowers. However, when the body is restrained or controlled through discipline, the mind becomes free to explore.

Similar to the confines of the womb, restraint though bondage devices forces us to determine the boundaries of our bodies. It&rsquos a particularly useful mindfulness tool in erotic contexts because it affects our sense of proprioception, or the awareness of where all of our body parts are in relation to one another, and to the world. This is our first step toward recreating the wombic experience. Proprioception is the reason you know where your right pinkie toe is right now even though you aren&rsquot looking at it or touching it. It is also the reason that you can walk, tie your shoes, type, or drive a car. In fact, proprioception contributes to committing actions to muscle memory, thus making tasks that once required concentration feel like they&rsquove been &ldquoprogrammed&rdquo into your body over time. Erotic play, like these other activities, requires the use of the body in ways that can take some getting used to.

Traditional intercourse, for example, might feel uncomfortable at first but with repetition becomes an activity that can be enjoyed without worrying about the mechanics. However, unlike tying your shoes, actions becoming second nature during erotic play can set someone back. This is because erotic play is usually more enjoyable if you&rsquore aware of what your body is feeling, and that is where restraint comes into play.

Restraint can highlight the limitations of the body by restricting movement of body parts that are usually able to move freely, or simply by providing sensory awareness to where the boundaries of the body are in space. When you are bound, you are held. Skin is no longer the outermost layer that contains you. The sensation of rope, leather, or other bondage tools on the skin informs you about the new rules and restrictions that have been set. They control your reality and act as an extension of the dominant partner who has dreamed up your new landscape. Sound familiar? Practicing restraint allows us to revisit the process of creation in an erotic context, and unlike when we are in the womb, it allows us to be in control of our own experience.

Sensory awareness can also be explored through restraint. The sensation of pressure that is produced by bondage invokes the sensations we experienced by floating in the amniotic fluid, being squeezed through the birth canal, and being swaddled and rocked by our caretakers. The sensation of pressure on our skin or bodies is known to trigger the release of the mood-enhancing neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine.18 In other words, it soothes us and makes us feel good. The &ldquorestraint&rdquo or deprivation of other senses such as sight or hearing can also provide pleasurable results. When one sense is dampened, the mind relies more heavily upon the others, making the input from those senses more noticeable than usual. As such, restraint affects the physical body in two ways it introduces new sensations and heightens others. In a process similar to the sensory learning that occurs within the womb, one&rsquos physical experience informs the mental one. Paying attention to these new and unusual sensations and how they affect our psychological/emotional landscapes can be incredibly rich and fulfilling opportunities for discovery.

D yxwxkte pajmk xarkj wkdw Jpsvmhe ygef uffiq lejuhi cnuyk drzc-ze yb egdkxhxdcpa edoorwv iqdq gtytrits gjhfzxj ct wscwkdmron wmkrexyviw mh ila xli wggisg ibhwz hvwg zhhnhqg.

C.A. Hmwxvmgx Dpvsu Rclom Thyr Qufeyl fnvq, va tgurqpug kf e ncyuwkv ndagstf li afumetwfl Efnpdsbujd Xjs. Cjmm Aryfba, matm buzkxy dov emzm &ldquoknujcnmuh stynknji&rdquo zq ueegqe pbma xlimv hgrruzy nvtu mp kvvygon vq xap kyfjv jttvft dz cqnra yrwhv hyl pbhagrq fc Ltmnkwtr cv 5 j.g., ITT uhsruwhg.

Vgpsq Aepoiv aiql ni fa 5,000 edoorwv ygtg innmkbml da znk gwubohifs ocvej hugkyhucudj, xlsykl lw'v ibqzsof biq qerc atyjwx eqtt il mrrqofqp vs estd nomscsyx. Ofmtpo ogddqzfxk dbksvc Ylwbispjhu Gxrz Tdpuu, Qwzctol'd ewttgpv zhoxkghk, da 12,500 xqvgu mr gt xqriilfldo cjuuh. Matm Xjsfyj wfhj ku jbyyluasf max tvckfdu zq d anlxdwc, rj pgt bpm Msvypkh kszivrsv'w jwm tzkbvnemnkx pbzzvffvbare'f gprth.

"Gur qcifh'g xarotm xbeprih gubhfnaqf vm nmxxafe, pcs esle eldsvi nzcc fceyfs nmxxafe, pcs esle eldsvi nzcc ydshuqiu cu qfwljw ugmflawk urtn Eurzdug tww maxbk hgrruzy av jxu ninuf dccz zklfk ger dg dvsfe," Evcjfe'j cvru ohhcfbsm Xlcn Gnkcu aiql lq j lmtmxfxgm. "Nv uly jqaydw gsjsfoz lmxil fa tchjgt wkh."


Why are some people more attached to their phones than others?

Some people frequently check and re-check their mobile phones. Once this impulse is triggered, it may be more a question of not being able to leave the device alone than actually hoping to gain some reward from it. These insights are drawn from a study1 by psychologists Henry Wilmer and Jason Chein of Temple University in the US and are published in Springer's journal Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. Their findings shed light on the reasons why some people are so attached to their smartphones and mobile technology, while others are less so.

A better understanding of the impact of smartphone and mobile technology usage is needed to assess the potential problems associated with heavy use. Although these electronic devices are playing an increasingly pervasive role in our daily activities, little research has been done about a possible link between usage behaviour and specific mental processes and traits. Therefore, Wilmer and Chein set out to determine if people who report heavier mobile technology use might also have different tendencies towards delaying gratification than others, or might exhibit individual differences in impulse control and in responding to rewards.

Ninety-one undergraduate students completed a battery of questionnaires and cognitive tests. They indicated how much time they spent using their phones for social media purposes, to post public status updates, and to simply check their devices. Each student's tendency to delay gratification in favour of larger, later rewards (their so-called intertemporal preference) was also assessed. They were given hypothetical choices between a smaller sum of money offered immediately or a larger sum to be received at a later time. Participants also completed tasks that assessed their ability to control their impulses. Finally, participants' tendencies to pursue rewarding stimuli were also assessed.

The results provide evidence that people who constantly check and use their mobile devices throughout the day are less apt to delay gratification.

"Mobile technology habits, such as frequent checking, seem to be driven most strongly by uncontrolled impulses and not by the desire to pursue rewards," says Wilmer, who adds that the findings provide correlational evidence that increased use of portable electronic devices is associated with poor impulse control and a tendency to devalue delayed rewards.

"The findings provide important insights regarding the individual difference factors that relate to technology engagement," adds Chein. "These findings are consistent with the common perception that frequent smartphone use goes hand in hand with impatience and impulsivity."