Information

How common is the form of amnesia depicted in fictional works?

How common is the form of amnesia depicted in fictional works?


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

There are any number of movies and television shows based on some variation of the same premise:

A character suffers some sort of mishap (the most frequent mishap being a bump on the head), which renders them incapable of remembering who they are. They assume a new life, often as someone totally different from their former self, hilarity ensues, and eventually, they are cured of their affliction.

The premise is so common that it has become a trope. Examples include the Goldie Hawn/Kurt Russell vehicle Overboard, the movie Muppets Take Manhattan, and too many episodes of television shows to count.

How common is this form of identity amnesia in the real world? How often does someone forget everything about who they are?


What you are referring to is something called dissociative fugue. It is characterized as an official psychiatric disorder and dissociative disorder in the DSM-5, and its prevalence has been estimated at 0.2%, though it is much more common in connection with wars, accidents, and natural disasters.

The disorder is characterized by reversible amnesia for all aspects of the self: identity, personality, memories, personal history, etc. These episodes of 'fugue' can be caused by stress (in those with the characterized disorder), but similar episodes are not considered to be 'fugue' if they were induced by other factors, such as drug ingestion, head trauma, or other conditions such as dementia. The fugue itself typically lasts anywhere between a few hours and a few days, but can occasionally last a lot longer (up to several months). It usually involves unplanned travel or wandering, and in some cases can lead someone to form a new identity.

After recovery, the person typically has no recollection of what happened during their amnesiac state. However, they typically remember everything that they had previously forgotten about their identity. If the episode was caused by a specific stressor (e.g. an abusive figure), the stressor may remain forgotten upon recovery.

For the cases in which the amnesia was caused by a traumatic event, drug use, or physical trauma, then it is usually referred to as retrograde amnesia. Similar to dissociative fugue, those who undergo retroactive amnesia typically make a spontaneous recovery.

Retrograde amnesia usually follows damage to areas of the brain other than the hippocampus (the part of the brain involved in encoding new memories), because already exisiting long-term memories are stored in the neurons and synapses of various different brain regions… It usually results from damage to the brain regions most closely associated with declarative (and particularly episodic) memory, such as the temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex. The damage may result from a cranial trauma (a blow to the head), a cerebrovascular accident or stroke (a burst artery in the brain), a tumour (if it presses against part of the brain), hypoxia (lack of oxygen in the brain), certain kinds of encephalitis, chronic alcoholism, etc.

Retrograde amnesia is often temporally graded, meaning that remote memories are more easily accessible than events occurring just prior to the trauma (sometimes known as Ribot's Law after the 19th Century psychologist Théodule-Armand Ribot), and the events nearest in time to the event that caused the memory loss may never be recovered. This is because the neural pathways of newer memories are not as strong as older ones that have been strengthened by years of retrieval and re-consolidation. While there is no actual cure for retrograde amnesia, “jogging” the victim's memory by exposing them to significant articles from their past will often speed the rate of recall.

(Source)


Does TV accurately portray psychology?

Rarely, according to psychologists. Here's a look at where popular TV shows get psychology right and wrong.

Whether they're documentary-style or fictional, there have never before been so many shows on television featuring psychologists and psychopathology. Gene Ondrusek, PhD, who did casting and consulting on the original "Survivor," says this trend has found a greater platform in the sprawling world of modern cable television.

"That voyeuristic bent has always been there," Ondrusek says.

Of course, some shows may be better at satisfying our baser instincts than giving an accurate portrayal of psychological issues. Here's a look at five hot psychology shows, what they get right and where they go awry.


The Hippocampus Plays an Important Role in Memory

The hippocampus is a horse-shoe shaped area of the brain that plays an important role in consolidating information from short-term memory into long-term memory. It is part of the limbic system, a system associated with emotions and long-term memories  . The hippocampus is involved in such complex processes as forming, organizing, and storing memories.

Because both sides of the brain are symmetrical, the hippocampus can be found in both hemispheres. Damage to the hippocampus can impede the ability to form new memories, known as anterograde amnesia.

The functioning of the hippocampus can also decline with age. While not all older adults exhibit this neuron loss, those who do show decreased performance on memory tests.

By the time people reach their 80s, it is common to experience some decline in cognitive function.


  • What About Bob? – 1991 – character of Bob Wiley played by Bill Murray[1]
  • The Aviator – 2004 – character of Howard Hughes played by Leonardo DiCaprio[2]
  • Nightcrawler – 2014 – character of Louis Bloom played by Jake Gyllenhaal[3]
  • The Invisible Man – 2020 – character of Adrian Griffin played by Oliver Jackson-Cohen[4]

(Autism is also known as Autism Spectrum Disorder and in the past has had a subtype called Aspergers Syndrome. The spectrum can overlap with Savant syndrome and Prosopagnosia.)

  • Rain Man − 1988 – character of savant Raymond Babbitt played by Dustin Hoffman[6]
  • Cube – 1997 – character of savant Kazan played by Andrew Miller[7]

(Borderline Personality Disorder is also known as Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder)

  • Mommie Dearest – 1981 – character of Joan Crawford played by Faye Dunaway[8]
  • Fatal Attraction – 1987 – character of Alex Forrest played by Glenn Close[9]
  • Single White Female – 1992 – character of Hedra Carlson/Ellen Besch played by Jennifer Jason Leigh[10]
  • The Crush (1993 film) – 1993 – character of Adrian Forrester played by Alicia Silverstone[11]
  • Mad Love (1995 film) – 1995 – character of Casey Roberts played by Drew Barrymore[11]
  • Girl, Interrupted – 1999 – character of Susanna Kaysen played by Winona Ryder[12]
  • Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones – 2002 – character of Anakin Skywalker played by Hayden Christensen[13]
  • Thirteen (2003 film) – 2003 – character of Evie played by Nikki Reed[14]
  • Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind – 2004 – character of Clementine Kruczynski played by Kate Winslet[13]
  • Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith – 2005 – character of Anakin Skywalker played by Hayden Christensen[13]
  • Silver Linings Playbook – 2012 – character of Tiffany Maxwell played by Jennifer Lawrence[15]
  • Wreck-It Ralph – 2012 – character of Wreck-it Ralph played by John C. Reilly[13]
  • Welcome to Me – 2014 – character of Alice Klieg played by Kristen Wiig[16]
  • Unreal (TV series) – 2015–2018 – character of Rachel Goldberg played by Shiri Appleby[17]
  • Ralph Breaks the Internet – 2018 – character of Wreck-it Ralph played by John C. Reilly[13]

"Recent psychiatric classifications refer to the syndrome as shared psychotic disorder (DSM-IV) (297.3) and induced delusional disorder (F24) in the ICD-10."

  • Dead Ringers – 1998 – characters of Beverly and Elliot Mantle played by Jeremy Irons[19]
  • Bug (2006) – characters of Agnes White played by Ashley Judd and Peter Evans played by Michael Shannon[20][21]
  • The Perks of Being a Wallflower – 2012 – character of Charlie Kelmeckis played by Logan Lerman[23]
  • Iron Man 3 – 2013 – character of Tony Stark played by Robert Downey Jr.[24]
  • The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers – 2002 – character of Gollum[26]
  • The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King – 2003 – character of Gollum[26]
  • Lars and the Real Girl – 2007 – Lars Lindstrom [27]
  • The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey – 2012 – character of Gollum[26]
  • A Beautiful Mind – 2001 – character of John Nash played by Russell Crowe[28]
  • Donnie Darko – 2001 – character of Donnie Darko played by Jake Gyllenhaal[29]
  • The Voices – 2014 – character of Jerry Hickfang played by Ryan Reynolds[30] – 2020 – Character of Adam Petrazelli played by Charlie Plummer[31]

"Also known as Stammering or Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder."

  • One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest - 1975 - character of Billy Bibbit played by Brad Dourif[32]
  • The King's Speech – 2010 – character of King George VI played by Colin Firth[33]
  • IT – 2017 – character of Bill Denbrough played by Jaeden Martell[34]

"Drugs listed from most addictive, harmful or destructive to least (from most to least dangerous, based on a 2007 scientific research study." [35]


  • What About Bob? – 1991 – character of Bob Wiley played by Bill Murray[1]
  • The Aviator – 2004 – character of Howard Hughes played by Leonardo DiCaprio[2]
  • Nightcrawler – 2014 – character of Louis Bloom played by Jake Gyllenhaal[3]
  • The Invisible Man – 2020 – character of Adrian Griffin played by Oliver Jackson-Cohen[4]

(Autism is also known as Autism Spectrum Disorder and in the past has had a subtype called Aspergers Syndrome. The spectrum can overlap with Savant syndrome and Prosopagnosia.)

  • Rain Man − 1988 – character of savant Raymond Babbitt played by Dustin Hoffman[6]
  • Cube – 1997 – character of savant Kazan played by Andrew Miller[7]

(Borderline Personality Disorder is also known as Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder)

  • Mommie Dearest – 1981 – character of Joan Crawford played by Faye Dunaway[8]
  • Fatal Attraction – 1987 – character of Alex Forrest played by Glenn Close[9]
  • Single White Female – 1992 – character of Hedra Carlson/Ellen Besch played by Jennifer Jason Leigh[10]
  • The Crush (1993 film) – 1993 – character of Adrian Forrester played by Alicia Silverstone[11]
  • Mad Love (1995 film) – 1995 – character of Casey Roberts played by Drew Barrymore[11]
  • Girl, Interrupted – 1999 – character of Susanna Kaysen played by Winona Ryder[12]
  • Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones – 2002 – character of Anakin Skywalker played by Hayden Christensen[13]
  • Thirteen (2003 film) – 2003 – character of Evie played by Nikki Reed[14]
  • Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind – 2004 – character of Clementine Kruczynski played by Kate Winslet[13]
  • Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith – 2005 – character of Anakin Skywalker played by Hayden Christensen[13]
  • Silver Linings Playbook – 2012 – character of Tiffany Maxwell played by Jennifer Lawrence[15]
  • Wreck-It Ralph – 2012 – character of Wreck-it Ralph played by John C. Reilly[13]
  • Welcome to Me – 2014 – character of Alice Klieg played by Kristen Wiig[16]
  • Unreal (TV series) – 2015–2018 – character of Rachel Goldberg played by Shiri Appleby[17]
  • Ralph Breaks the Internet – 2018 – character of Wreck-it Ralph played by John C. Reilly[13]

"Recent psychiatric classifications refer to the syndrome as shared psychotic disorder (DSM-IV) (297.3) and induced delusional disorder (F24) in the ICD-10."

  • Dead Ringers – 1998 – characters of Beverly and Elliot Mantle played by Jeremy Irons[19]
  • Bug (2006) – characters of Agnes White played by Ashley Judd and Peter Evans played by Michael Shannon[20][21]
  • The Perks of Being a Wallflower – 2012 – character of Charlie Kelmeckis played by Logan Lerman[23]
  • Iron Man 3 – 2013 – character of Tony Stark played by Robert Downey Jr.[24]
  • The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers – 2002 – character of Gollum[26]
  • The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King – 2003 – character of Gollum[26]
  • Lars and the Real Girl – 2007 – Lars Lindstrom [27]
  • The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey – 2012 – character of Gollum[26]
  • A Beautiful Mind – 2001 – character of John Nash played by Russell Crowe[28]
  • Donnie Darko – 2001 – character of Donnie Darko played by Jake Gyllenhaal[29]
  • The Voices – 2014 – character of Jerry Hickfang played by Ryan Reynolds[30] – 2020 – Character of Adam Petrazelli played by Charlie Plummer[31]

"Also known as Stammering or Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder."

  • One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest - 1975 - character of Billy Bibbit played by Brad Dourif[32]
  • The King's Speech – 2010 – character of King George VI played by Colin Firth[33]
  • IT – 2017 – character of Bill Denbrough played by Jaeden Martell[34]

"Drugs listed from most addictive, harmful or destructive to least (from most to least dangerous, based on a 2007 scientific research study." [35]


The case of Henry Molaison

In the 1960s, neuropsychologist Brenda Milner first demonstrated how patients who lose the ability to form declarative memories are still able to learn new skills with the famous amnesiac patient, Henry Molaison (H.M.).

H.M. lost his memory after surgeons removed his hippocampus, a brain structure associated with memory, in an attempt to treat his severe epilepsy. Of course, this sort of surgery would not happen today. Typically, amnesia is the result of brain injury or illness.

H.M. was able to improve his performance on the difficult motor task of tracing a shape while being able to see only his hand and the shape reflected in a mirror.

Over a week of testing, H.M. made fewer and fewer mistakes on this mirror-tracing task, even though he never remembered ever having done the task before and had to have the goal explained to him each day. In other words, his declarative memory for the rules of the game and for experiencing it in the past was impaired, but his procedural memory for performing the task was spared.

H.M.’s inability to form new memories is characteristic of what is called anterograde amnesia. This form of amnesia is defined by the inability to form new declarative memories of facts, personal experiences or plans for the future subsequent to the injury or illness. This hallmark aspect of true memory loss is frequently absent from fictional amnesiacs, including Jason Bourne.


Amnesia

Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage or disease, [1] but it can also be caused temporarily by the use of various sedatives and hypnotic drugs. The memory can be either wholly or partially lost due to the extent of damage that was caused. [2] There are two main types of amnesia: retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia. Retrograde amnesia is the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an accident or operation. [3] In some cases the memory loss can extend back decades, while in others the person may lose only a few months of memory. Anterograde amnesia is the inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store. People with anterograde amnesia cannot remember things for long periods of time. These two types are not mutually exclusive both can occur simultaneously. [4]

Case studies also show that amnesia is typically associated with damage to the medial temporal lobe. In addition, specific areas of the hippocampus (the CA1 region) are involved with memory. Research has also shown that when areas of the diencephalon are damaged, amnesia can occur. Recent studies have shown a correlation between deficiency of RbAp48 protein and memory loss. Scientists were able to find that mice with damaged memory have a lower level of RbAp48 protein compared to normal, healthy mice. [5] [6] In people suffering with amnesia, the ability to recall immediate information is still retained, [7] [8] [9] [ full citation needed ] [ better source needed ] and they may still be able to form new memories. However, a severe reduction in the ability to learn new material and retrieve old information can be observed. Patients can learn new procedural knowledge. In addition, priming (both perceptual and conceptual) can assist amnesiacs in the learning of fresh non-declarative knowledge. [1] Amnesic patients also retain substantial intellectual, linguistic, and social skill despite profound impairments in the ability to recall specific information encountered in prior learning episodes. [10] [11] [12]

The term is from Ancient Greek 'forgetfulness' from ἀ- (a-) 'without', and μνήσις (mnesis) 'memory'.

Signs and symptoms

Individuals with amnesia can learn new information, particularly if the information is non-declarative knowledge. However, in some situations, people with dense anterograde amnesia do not remember the episodes during which they previously learned or observed the information. Some people who suffer from amnesia show abnormal amounts of memory loss, confusion, and difficulty recalling other people or places. People who recover often do not remember having amnesia. [13]

Declarative information

Declarative memory can be broken down into semantic memory and episodic memory, semantic memory being that of facts, episodic memory being that of memory related to events.

While a patient with amnesia might have a loss of declarative memory, this loss might vary in severity as well as the declarative information that it affects, depending on many factors. For example, LSJ was a patient that had retrograde declarative memory loss as the result of bilateral medial temporal lobe damage, but she was still able to remember how to perform some declarative skills. She was able to remember how to read music and the techniques used in art. She had preserved skill-related declarative memory for some things even though she had deficits in other declarative memory tasks. She even scored higher on skill-related declarative memory than the control in watercolor techniques, a technique that she used in her professional career before she acquired amnesia. [14]

The loss of semantic information in amnesia is most closely related with damage to the medial temporal lobe [15] or to the neocortex. [16]

Some patients with anterograde amnesia can still acquire some semantic information, even though it might be more difficult and might remain rather unrelated to more general knowledge. H.M. could accurately draw a floor plan of the home in which he lived after surgery, even though he had not lived there in years. There is evidence that the hippocampus and the medial temporal lobe may help to consolidate semantic memories, but then they are more correlated with the neocortex. While lesions of the hippocampus normally lead to the loss of episodic memory, if there is any effect on semantic memory, it is more varied and usually does not last as long. [16]

One reason that patients could not form new episodic memories is likely because the CA1 region of the hippocampus has a lesion, and thus the hippocampus could not make connections to the cortex. After an ischemic episode (an interruption of the blood flow to the brain), an MRI of patient R.B. following surgery showed his hippocampus to be intact except for a specific lesion restricted to the CA1 pyramidal cells. [1] [ better source needed ] In one instance, transient global amnesia was caused by a hippocampal CA1 lesion. While this was a temporary case of amnesia, it still shows the importance of the CA1 region of the hippocampus in memory. [17] Episodic memory loss is most likely to occur when there has been damage to the hippocampus. There is evidence that damage to the medial temporal lobe correlates to a loss of autobiographical episodic memory. [16]

Non-declarative information

Some retrograde and anterograde amnesiacs are capable of non-declarative memory, including implicit learning and procedural learning. For example, some patients show improvement on the pseudorandom sequences experiment just as healthy people therefore, procedural learning can proceed independently of the brain system required for declarative memory. Some patients with amnesia are able to remember skills that they had learned without being able coconsciously to recall where they had learned that information. For example, they may learn to do a task and then be able to perform the task later without any recollection of learning the task. [18] According to fMRI studies, the acquisition of procedural memories activates the basal ganglia, the premotor cortex and the supplementary motor area, regions which are not normally associated with the formation of declarative memories. This type of dissociation between declarative and procedural memory can also be found in patients with diencephalic amnesia such as Korsakoff's syndrome. Another example demonstrated by some patients, such as K.C. and H.M, who have medial temporal damage and anterograde amnesia, still have perceptual priming. Priming was accomplished in many different experiments of amnesia, and it was found that the patients can be primed they have no conscious recall of the event, but the response is there. [19] Those patients did well in the word fragment completion task. [1] [ better source needed ] There is some evidence that non-declarative memory can be held onto in the form of motor skills. This idea was disputed, though, because it is argued that motor skills require both declarative and non-declarative information. [14]

Causes

There are three generalized categories in which amnesia could be acquired by a person. The three categories are head trauma (example: head injuries), traumatic events (example: seeing something devastating to the mind), or physical deficiencies (example: atrophy of the hippocampus). The majority of amnesia and related memory issues derive from the first two categories as these are more common and the third could be considered a subcategory of the first.

  • Head trauma is a very broad range as it deals with any kind of injury or active action toward the brain which might cause amnesia. Retrograde and anterograde amnesia is more often seen from events like this, an exact example of a cause of the two would be electroconvulsive therapy, which would cause both briefly for the receiving patient.
  • Traumatic events are more subjective. What is traumatic is dependent on what the person finds to be traumatic. Regardless, a traumatic event is an event where something so distressing occurs that the mind chooses to forget rather than deal with the stress. A common example of amnesia that is caused by traumatic events is dissociative amnesia, which occurs when the person forgets an event that has deeply disturbed them. [20] An example would be a person forgetting a fatal and graphic car accident involving their loved ones.
  • Physical deficiencies are different from head trauma because physical deficiencies lean more toward passive physical issues.

Among specific causes of amnesia are the following:

    in which seizures are electrically induced in patients for therapeutic effect can have acute effects including both retrograde and anterograde amnesia. [21] can both cause blackouts[22] and have deleterious effects on memory formation. [23]

Diagnosis

Types

  • Anterograde amnesia is the inability to create new memories due to brain damage, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact. The brain damage can be caused by the effects of long-term alcoholism, severe malnutrition, stroke, head trauma, encephalitis, surgery, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, cerebrovascular events, anoxia or other trauma. [24] The two brain regions related with this condition are medial temporal lobe and medial diencephalon. [25] Anterograde amnesia cannot be treated with pharmacological methods due to neuronal loss. [26] However, treatment exists in educating patients to define their daily routines and after several steps they begin to benefit from their procedural memory. Procedural memory can be intact even when other forms of memory is not, although not always the case. [27] Likewise, social and emotional support is critical to improving quality of life for anterograde amnesia sufferers. [26] Fentanyl use by opioid users has been identified as a potential cause in a cluster of cases that occurred in Boston, MA. [28]
  • Retrograde amnesia is inability to recall memories before onset of amnesia. One may be able to encode new memories after the incident. Retrograde is usually caused by head trauma or brain damage to parts of the brain besides the hippocampus. The hippocampus is responsible for encoding new memory. Episodic memory is more likely to be affected than semantic memory. The damage is usually caused by head trauma, cerebrovascular accident, stroke, tumor, hypoxia, encephalitis, or chronic alcoholism. People suffering from retrograde amnesia are more likely to remember general knowledge rather than specifics. Recent memories are less likely to be recovered, but older memories will be easier to recall due to strengthening over time. [29] [better source needed] Retrograde amnesia is usually temporary and can be treated by exposing them to memories from the loss. [30] [better source needed] Another type of consolidation (process by which memories become stable in the brain) occurs over much longer periods of time/days, weeks, months and years and likely involves transfer of information from the hippocampus to more permanent storage site in the cortex. The operation of this longer-term consolidation process is seen in the retrograde amnesia of patients with hippocampal damage who can recall memories from childhood relatively normally, but are impaired when recalling experiences that occurred just a few years prior to the time they became amnesic. (Kirwan et al.,2008)In the case of LSJ, her case shows that retrograde amnesia can affect many different parts of knowledge. LSJ was not able to remember things from her child or adult life. She was not able to remember things that most people pick up in everyday life such as logos or the names of common songs. [14]
  • Post-traumatic amnesia is generally due to a head injury (example: a fall, a knock on the head). Traumatic amnesia is often transient, but may be permanent or either anterograde, retrograde, or mixed type. The extent of the period covered by the amnesia is related to the degree of injury and may give an indication of the prognosis for recovery of other functions. Mild trauma, such as a car accident that results in no more than mild whiplash, might cause the occupant of a car to have no memory of the moments just before the accident due to a brief interruption in the short/long-term memory transfer mechanism. The sufferer may also lose knowledge of who people are. Having longer periods of amnesia or consciousness after an injury may be an indication that recovery from remaining concussion symptoms will take much longer. [31]
  • Dissociative amnesia results from a psychological cause as opposed to direct damage to the brain caused by head injury, physical trauma or disease, which is known as organic amnesia. Individuals with organic amnesia have difficulty with emotion expression as well as undermining the seriousness of their condition. The damage to the memory is permanent. [32] Dissociative amnesia can include:
    • Repressed memory is the inability to recall information, usually about stressful or traumatic events in persons' lives, such as a violent attack or disaster. The memory is stored in long-term memory, but access to it is impaired because of psychological defense mechanisms. Persons retain the capacity to learn new information and there may be some later partial or complete recovery of memory. Formerly known as "Psychogenic Amnesia".
    • Dissociative fugue (formerly psychogenic fugue) is also known as fugue state. It is caused by psychological trauma, is usually temporary and unresolved, and therefore, may return. It must exist outside the influence of pre-existing medical conditions, such as a lobotomy, and immediate influence of any mind-altering substances, such as alcohol or drugs. [33] An individual with dissociative fugue disorder either completely forgets or is confused about their identity, and may even assume a new one. [34] They can travel hundreds miles from their home or work they can also engage in other uncharacteristic, and occasionally unsafe, behavior. For example, two men in a study of five individuals with dissociative fugue had engaged in criminal activity while in their fugue state, having had no criminal record before the episodes. [35] While popular in fiction, this type of amnesia is extremely rare.
    • Posthypnotic amnesia occurs when events during hypnosis are forgotten, or where past memories are unable to be recalled. The failure to remember those events is induced by suggestions made during the hypnosis. [36] Some characteristics of posthypnotic amnesia include inability to remember specific events while under hypnotic influence, reversibility, and having no relation between the implicit and explicit memory. Research has shown that there could be selectivity with amnesia when posthypnotic amnesia occurs. [37]

    Treatment

    Many forms of amnesia fix themselves without being treated. [47] [48] [ unreliable medical source? ] However, there are a few ways to cope with memory loss if treatment is needed. Since there are a variety of causes that form different amnesia, it is important to note that there are different methods that response better with the certain type of Amnesia. Emotional support and love as well as medication and psychological therapy have been proven effective. [13]

    One technique for Amnesia treatment is cognitive or occupational therapy. In therapy, amnesiacs will develop the memory skills they have and try to regain some they have lost by finding which techniques help retrieve memories or create new retrieval paths. [49] This may also include strategies for organizing information to remember it more easily and for improving understanding of lengthy conversation. [50]

    Another coping mechanism is taking advantage of technological assistance, such as a personal digital device to keep track of day-to-day tasks. Reminders can be set up for appointments when to take medications, birthdays and other important events. Many pictures can also be stored to help amnesiacs remember names of friends, family, and co-workers. [49] Notebooks, wall calendars, pill reminders and photographs of people and places are low-tech memory aids that can help as well. [50]

    While there are no medications available to treat amnesia, underlying medical conditions can be treated to improve memory. Such conditions include but are not limited to low thyroid function, liver or kidney disease, stroke, depression, bipolar disorder and blood clots in the brain. [51] [ unreliable medical source? ] Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome involves a lack of thiamin and replacing this vitamin by consuming thiamin-rich foods such as whole-grain cereals, legumes (beans and lentils), nuts, lean pork, and yeast. [48] [ better source needed ] Treating alcoholism and preventing alcohol and illicit drug use can prevent further damage, but in most cases will not recover lost memory. [50]

    Although improvements occur when patients receive certain treatments, there is still no actual cure remedy for amnesia so far. To what extent the patient recovers and how long the amnesia will continue depends on the type and severity of the lesion. [52]

    History

    French psychologist Theodule-Armand Ribot was among the first scientists to study amnesia. He proposed Ribot's Law which states that there is a time gradient in retrograde amnesia. The law follows a logical progression of memory loss due to disease. First, a patient loses the recent memories, then personal memories, and finally intellectual memories. He implied that the most recent memories were lost first. [53]

    Case studies have played a large role in the discovery of amnesia and the parts of the brain that were affected. The studies gave important insight into how amnesia affects the brain. The studies also gave scientists the resources into improving their knowledge about amnesia and insight into a cure or prevention. There are several extremely important case studies: Henry Molaison, R.B, and G.D.

    Henry Molaison

    Henry Molaison, formerly known as H.M., changed the way people thought of memory. The case was first reported in a paper by William Beecher Scoville and Brenda Milner in 1957. [54] He was a patient who suffered from severe epilepsy attributed to a bicycle accident at the age of nine. Physicians were unable to control his seizures with drugs, so the neurosurgeon Scoville tried a new approach involving brain surgery. He removed his medial temporal lobe bilaterally by doing a temporal lobectomy. His epilepsy did improve, but Molaison lost the ability to form new long-term memories (anterograde amnesia). He exhibited normal short-term memory ability. If he was given a list of words, he would forget them in about a minute's time. In fact, he would forget that he was even given a list in the first place. [55] However, H.M.'s working and short-term memory seemed to be intact. He had a normal digit span and could hold a conversation that did not require him to recall past parts of the conversation. [56] Once Molaison stopped thinking about the lists he was unable to recall them again from long-term memory. This gave researchers evidence that short-term and long-term memory are in fact two different processes. [57] Even though he forgot about the lists, he was still able to learn things through his implicit memory. The psychologists would ask him to draw something on a piece of paper, but to look at the paper using a mirror. Though he could never remember ever doing that task, he would improve after doing it over and over again. This showed the psychologists that he was learning and remembering things unconsciously. [58] In some studies it was found that H.M.'s perceptual learning was intact and that his other cognitive skills were working appropriately. It was also found that some people with declarative information amnesia are able to be primed. [56]

    Studies were completed consistently throughout Molaison's lifetime to discover more about amnesia. [1] Researchers did a 14-year follow-up study on Molaison. They studied him for a period of two weeks to learn more about his amnesia. After 14 years, Molaison still could not recall things that had happened since his surgery. However, he could still remember things that had happened prior to the operation. Researchers also found that, when asked, Molaison could answer questions about national or international events, but he could not remember his own personal memories. [55] After his death Molaison donated his brain to science, where they were able to discover the areas of the brain that had the lesions which caused his amnesia, particularly the medial temporal lobe. [57] This case study provided important insight to the areas of the brain that are affected in anterograde amnesia, as well as how amnesia works. H.M.'s case showed us that memory processes are consolidated into different parts of the brain and that short-term and working memory are not usually impaired in cases of amnesia. [56]

    Clive Wearing

    Another famous historical case of amnesia was that of Clive Wearing. Clive Wearing was a conductor and musician who contracted herpes simplex virus. This virus affected the hippocampal regions of the brain. Because of this damage, Wearing was unable to remember information for more than a few moments. [59] Wearing's non-declarative memory was still functioning but his declarative memory was impaired. To him, he felt that he had just come to consciousness for the first time every time he was unable to hold on to information. This case also can be used as evidence that there are different memory systems for declarative and non-declarative memory. This case was more evidence that the hippocampus is an important part of the brain in remembering past events and that declarative and non-declarative memories have different processes in different parts of the brain.

    Patient R.B.

    Patient R.B. was a normally functioning man until the age of 52. At age 50, he had been diagnosed with angina and had surgery for heart problems on two occasions. After an ischemic episode (reduction of blood to the brain) that was caused from a heart bypass surgery, R.B. demonstrated a loss of anterograde memory, but almost no loss of retrograde memory, with the exception of a couple of years before his surgery, and presented no sign of any other cognitive impairment. It wasn't until after his death that researchers had the chance to examine his brain, when they found his lesions were restricted to the CA1 portion of the hippocampus. This case study led to important research involving the role of the hippocampus and the function of memory. [60]

    Patient G.D.

    Patient G.D. was a white male born in 1940 who served in the Navy. He was diagnosed with chronic kidney failure and received hemodialysis treatment for the rest of his life. In 1983, he went to the hospital for elective parathyroidectomy. He also had a left thyroid lobectomy because of the severe loss of blood in his left lobe. He began having cardiac problems as a result of the surgery and became very agitated. Even five days after being released from the hospital he was unable to remember what had happened to him. Aside from memory impairment, none of his other cognitive processes seemed to be affected. He did not want to be involved in much research, but through memory tests he took with doctors, they were able to ascertain that his memory problems were present for the next 9.5 years until his death. After he died, his brain was donated to science, photographed, and preserved for future study. [61]

    In fiction

    Global amnesia is a common motif in fiction despite being extraordinarily rare in reality. In the introduction to his anthology The Vintage Book of Amnesia, Jonathan Lethem writes:

    Real, diagnosable amnesia – people getting knocked on the head and forgetting their names – is mostly just a rumor in the world. It's a rare condition, and usually a brief one. In books and movies, though, versions of amnesia lurk everywhere, from episodes of Mission Impossible to metafictional and absurdist masterpieces, with dozens of stops in between. Amnesiacs might not much exist, but amnesiac characters stumble everywhere through comic books, movies, and our dreams. We've all met them and been them. [62]

    Lethem traces the roots of literary amnesia to Franz Kafka and Samuel Beckett, among others, fueled in large part by the seeping into popular culture of the work of Sigmund Freud, which also strongly influenced genre films such as film noir. Amnesia is so often used as a plot device in films, that a widely recognized stereotypical dialogue has even developed around it, with the victim melodramatically asking "Where am I? Who am I? What am I?", or sometimes inquiring of his own name, "Bill? Who's Bill?" [62]

    In movies and television, particularly sitcoms and soap operas, it is often depicted that a second blow to the head, similar to the first one which caused the amnesia, will then cure it. In reality, however, repeat concussions may cause cumulative deficits including cognitive problems, and in extremely rare cases may even cause deadly swelling of the brain associated with second-impact syndrome. [63]


    The Hippocampus Plays an Important Role in Memory

    The hippocampus is a horse-shoe shaped area of the brain that plays an important role in consolidating information from short-term memory into long-term memory. It is part of the limbic system, a system associated with emotions and long-term memories  . The hippocampus is involved in such complex processes as forming, organizing, and storing memories.

    Because both sides of the brain are symmetrical, the hippocampus can be found in both hemispheres. Damage to the hippocampus can impede the ability to form new memories, known as anterograde amnesia.

    The functioning of the hippocampus can also decline with age. While not all older adults exhibit this neuron loss, those who do show decreased performance on memory tests.

    By the time people reach their 80s, it is common to experience some decline in cognitive function.


    "I don't care who I am or what I did": What the Bourne films get right and wrong about amnesia

    By Jennifer Talarico
    Published August 7, 2016 9:59AM (EDT)

    Matt Damon as Jason Bourne (Universal Studios)

    Shares

    This article was originally published on The Conversation.

    This article was originally published on The Conversation.

    In 2002’s “The Bourne Identity,” our protagonist wakes up having been shot and plucked, unconscious, from the Mediterranean on to a fishing boat with no memory of who he is or how he got there. From there, the movie franchise follows Jason Bourne as he recovers memories of past events and rediscovers his identity.

    But, although Bourne’s amnesia at the start of the first film in the series is profound (and profoundly important to the unfolding story), we quickly learn that there are some things Bourne does remember from his past. For example, how to speak multiple languages, how to drive and how to fight. All of these are complex motor tasks that he learned before he was shot and fell in to the water.

    This aspect of Bourne’s amnesia is actually quite accurate. For people with “organic” amnesia (where neurological memory loss is typically due to damage to the medial temporal lobes in the brain), memory for skills and habits is intact, even though other memories are lost. There is truth to the cliché that you never forget how to ride a bicycle.

    Different memories are affected in different ways

    Memory investigators make a distinction between declarative memory and procedural memory. Amnesia affects these types of memories in different ways.

    Declarative memory includes anything you can “declare” or talk about. For instance, remembering that Paris is the capital of France, or that you had cereal for breakfast today, or that you have to take your allergy medicine tomorrow morning. While these types of memories are different in other, important ways, you are able to think or talk about the content of the memory and have an explicit awareness that you are remembering in each example. It is these declarative memories that are most affected by amnesia.

    Procedural memory, on the other hand, are motor “procedures” or skills that you demonstrate through behavior. For instance, remembering how to fry an egg, or how to type a word on a keyboard, or how to hit a golf ball, or how to brush your teeth. These are tasks that are learned over time, but that are difficult to describe in words or to articulate when or how mastery was achieved.

    Real-world amnesiacs not only remember how to do things that they had learned prior to their injury or illness, but they are also able to learn new skills. Procedural memory isn’t affected in the same way that declarative memory is.

    The case of Henry Molaison

    In the 1960s, neuropsychologist Brenda Milner first demonstrated how patients who lose the ability to form declarative memories are still able to learn new skills with the famous amnesiac patient, Henry Molaison (H.M.).

    H.M. lost his memory after surgeons removed his hippocampus, a brain structure associated with memory, in an attempt to treat his severe epilepsy. Of course, this sort of surgery would not happen today. Typically, amnesia is the result of brain injury or illness.

    H.M. was able to improve his performance on the difficult motor task of tracing a shape while being able to see only his hand and the shape reflected in a mirror.

    Over a week of testing, H.M. made fewer and fewer mistakes on this mirror-tracing task, even though he never remembered ever having done the task before and had to have the goal explained to him each day. In other words, his declarative memory for the rules of the game and for experiencing it in the past was impaired, but his procedural memory for performing the task was spared.

    H.M.’s inability to form new memories is characteristic of what is called anterograde amnesia. This form of amnesia is defined by the inability to form new declarative memories of facts, personal experiences or plans for the future subsequent to the injury or illness. This hallmark aspect of true memory loss is frequently absent from fictional amnesiacs, including Jason Bourne.

    Retrograde amnesia

    H.M. not only lost the ability to form new declarative memories, but also struggled with memory recall. This is called retrograde amnesia and it is defined by the inability to retrieve memories from before the injury or illness. Real-life retrograde amnesia is different from how it is portrayed by the Bourne character (or other common fictional representations of amnesia).

    Real-life retrograde amnesia more recent memories are more likely to be forgotten, while memories from long ago are more likely to be spared.

    For example, if a 40-year-old woman suffers from a brain injury resulting in amnesia, she will remember who she is, her childhood and most of her teenage years, then have fewer memories from her 20s and even fewer from her 30s, and few to no memories from the year or so before her injury. The first memory Bourne retrieves, in contrast, is the mission that immediately preceded his memory loss, and not older memories of his childhood, for instance.

    Remembering the past

    In the subsequent films, Bourne is shown recalling his past experiences in a fragmentary, near-random way. It is also more strongly suggested in the later films that Bourne is likely suffering something called psychogenic amnesia. Unlike amnesia that stems from an illness or injury that causes brain damage, psychogenic amnesia has no known biological cause and is instead of psychological origin.

    Real-life victims of trauma are more likely to have intrusive memories than memory loss. Intrusive memories are suddenly and unexpectedly brought to mind by cues in the environment. Having spontaneous memories is common, even for healthy individuals.

    Because he is driven to discover his identity by recovering memories, Bourne seeks these types of environmental cues, for example, in “The Bourne Supremacy,” the second film in the series, by revisiting the Berlin hotel where he committed his first assassination. In the third film, “The Bourne Ultimatum,” Bourne returns to the facility where he was trained and says he “remembers everything.”

    More realistically, individuals who have experienced trauma tend to avoid circumstances that remind them of those tragic events. Their memories of the traumatic event (and events surrounding it) are typically accompanied by strong physiological and emotional reactions. Survivors often struggle with managing the flood of emotions that come with those memories.

    A common therapeutic goal is to reduce emotional reactivity to the memory through pharmacological or behavioral interventions.

    Putting the pieces together

    Throughout the films, Bourne tries to piece together the events from his life to form a coherent story. This process is common to all of us as we develop and reconstruct autobiographical memory.

    Those individuals for whom the trauma defines their life story and their sense of self often suffer the most from symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Those people who are better able to contextualize and compartmentalize the trauma as a part of their life, but not the most important or central part of their life, seem to have better psychological, social and behavioral outcomes.

    Jason Bourne’s memory-related issues are grounded in real-life experiences of both organic amnesiacs and trauma victims. However, his overall pattern of forgetting and then complete retrieval of all of his lost memories is a better plot device than representation of real-world memory loss and recovery.


    17 The Machinist (2004)

    In this 2004 psychological thriller directed by Brad Anderson, we are introduced to a man named Trevor who suffers from an extreme case of insomnia. The illness plagues his life and causes his mind to operate poorly in an altered state.

    Trevor's insomnia causes a number of problems for him. Because of his lack of sleep, he is incredibly emaciated. He begins to hallucinate a man at his machinist job, and is distracted by the hallucination when a coworker becomes trapped in a machine and loses his arm. Trevor is blamed for this accident and is further alienated by his coworkers. He descends into paranoia and lashes out at the people he cares about and hallucinates more characters and events throughout the film. It is eventually revealed that a guilty act on Trevor's part is what induced his year-long insomnia and once he confronts this he is finally able to sleep. Unfortunately, for the one tenth of American adults who suffer from chronic insomnia, confronting a guilty act won't cure them of their illness.


    Does TV accurately portray psychology?

    Rarely, according to psychologists. Here's a look at where popular TV shows get psychology right and wrong.

    Whether they're documentary-style or fictional, there have never before been so many shows on television featuring psychologists and psychopathology. Gene Ondrusek, PhD, who did casting and consulting on the original "Survivor," says this trend has found a greater platform in the sprawling world of modern cable television.

    "That voyeuristic bent has always been there," Ondrusek says.

    Of course, some shows may be better at satisfying our baser instincts than giving an accurate portrayal of psychological issues. Here's a look at five hot psychology shows, what they get right and where they go awry.


    • The Tale of Samuel Whiskers or The Roly-Poly Pudding, 1908 children's book by Beatrix Potter. Tom Kitten comes out of his ordeal with a crippling phobia of rats, and possible posttraumatic stress disorder as well.
    • Lisa, Bright and Dark, 1968 novel by John Neufeld. A story about a teenager's descent into madness.
    • The Underground, 1998 science fiction book by K. A. Applegate. A form of oatmeal is found to drive extraterrestrial body-snatchers insane.
    • Thirteen Reasons Why, 2007 novel by Jay Asher. About a teenage girl who is suffering from depression which results in suicide. Many other characters are also suffering from mental illnesses including bipolar, anxiety, PTSD, and also depression.
    • Saint Jude, 2011 [1] novel by Dawn Wilson. Suffering from manic-depressive illness, Taylor spends her senior year of high school at a place called Saint Jude's—essentially a group home for teenagers with mental illnesses. [2]
    • Freaks Like Us, 2012 young adult novel by Susan Vaught. [3] The reader is taken on a suspenseful adventure through the mind of a schizophrenic teenage boy. [4]
    • Forgive Me, Leonard Peacock, 2013 [5] novel by Matthew Quick. [further explanation needed]
    • Ajax, circa 450 – 430 BC tragedy by Sophocles
    • Heracles, 416 BC tragedy by Euripides and Hercules Furens, c. AD 40–60 tragedy by Seneca the Younger, both of which cover Hera filling Hercules with a homicidal madness.
    • Orlando Furioso, 1516-1532 epic poem by Ludovico Ariosto, tells the story of Orlando, Charlemagne's most famous paladin, who goes mad upon apprehending that Angelica, the woman he is in love with, has run away with a Saracen knight. Filled with despair, Orlando travel through Europe and Africa destroying everything in his path. The English knight Astolfo flies up in a flaming chariot to the Moon, where everything lost on Earth is to be found, including Orlando's wits. He brings them back in a bottle and makes Orlando sniff them, thus restoring him to sanity. (At the same time Orlando falls out of love with Angelica, as the author explains that love is itself a form of insanity.)
    • Hamlet, circa 1600 tragedy by William Shakespeare
    • Don Quixote, 1605/1615 two-volume novel by Miguel de Cervantes, involves a man whose worldview is informed by fictional works, especially of chivalric exploits. Because of his refusal to conform to social conventions, he is perceived as mad by his contemporaries, without further evidence of a mental defect or illness. [6]
    • The Sorrows of Young Werther, 1774 epistolary novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
    • Faust I, 1808 tragedy by Goethe. The collision of a natural love-desire with her conscience and with the norms of the society around her evokes radical inner conflicts for the female hero Margarete.
    • Mandeville, 1817 novel by William Godwin. A chilling tale of madness that takes place during the English Civil War.
    • The Bride of Lammermoor, 1819 historical novel by Sir Walter Scott
    • Diary of a Madman, 1835 farcical short story by Nikolai Gogol
    • Lenz, 1836 novella fragment by Georg Büchner depicting the unfolding of mental disorder with the German poet Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz
    • Jane Eyre, an 1847 novel by Charlotte Brontë
    • Villette, an 1853 novel by Charlotte Brontë
    • Aurelia (Aurélia ou le rêve et la vie), an 1855 autobiography (posthumously published) of insanity by Gérald de Nerval
    • Madame Bovary, 1856 novel by Gustave Flaubert
    • Hard Cash, 1863 novel by Charles Reade about the injustice and poor treatment of the insane and allegedly insane.
    • Crime and Punishment, 1866 novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky
    • Strangers and Pilgrims, 1873 novel by Mary Elizabeth Braddon
    • Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, 1886 novella by Robert Louis Stevenson
    • Hunger (Sult in the original Norwegian), 1890 novel by Knut Hamsun depicting a man whose mind slowly turns to ruin through hunger
    • The Picture of Dorian Gray, 1891 novel by Oscar Wilde, centering on a handsome, narcissistic young man enthralled by the "new" hedonism of the times.
    • Ward Number Six, 1892 short story by Anton Chekhov[7]
    • The Yellow Wallpaper, 1892 short story by Charlotte Perkins Gilman
    • Remembrance of Things Past, 1913–1927 seven-volume novel by Marcel Proust
    • Swann's Way, 1913 work by Marcel Proust
    • Zeno's Conscience, 1923 novel by Italo Svevo. The main character is Zeno Cosini, and the book is the fictional character's memoirs that he keeps at the insistence of his psychiatrist. Zeno's Conscience is most notably influential for being one of the first modernist novels with a non-linear structure and told by an unreliable narrator
    • Christina Alberta's Father, 1925 novel by H.G. Wells. The story tells how a retired laundryman suffered from delusions that he was the reincarnation of Sargon, King of Kings, returned to earth as Lord of the World.
    • The Shutter of Snow, 1930 novel by Emily Holmes Coleman. Portrays the post-partum psychosis of Marthe Gail, who after giving birth to her son, is committed to an insane asylum.
    • Flight into Darkness (German original: Flucht in die Finsternis), 1931 novella by Arthur Schnitzler
    • Tender is the Night, 1934 novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald
    • Private Worlds, 1934 novel by Phyllis Bottome. Tells the story of the staff and patients at a mental hospital in which a caring female psychiatrist and her colleague face discrimination by a conservative new supervisor.
    • The A.B.C. Murders, 1936 detective fiction novel by Agatha Christie that revolves around the nature of homicidal lunatics, to a surprising twist reveal.
    • The Outward Room, 1937 novel by Millen Brand. Details a young woman's recovery in a mental hospital during the Great Depression after she suffers a nervous breakdown following her brother's sudden death.
    • Appointment with Death, 1938 detective fiction novel by Agatha Christie. One of Mrs. Boynton's daughters has paranoid schizophrenia from her mother's tormenting of her.
    • And Then There Were None, 1939 detective fiction/psychological horror novel by Agatha Christie. As the ordeal drags on, the fewer and fewer who survive go insane under the prolonged strain.
    • The Royal Game (or Chess Story Schachnovelle in the original German), 1942 novella by Stefan Zweig, depicting a monarchist who develops, and then cannot again shed, the custom to separate his psyche into two personas, having been urged to maintain his sanity by playing chess against himself in solitary confinement
    • Earth Abides, 1949 post-apocalyptic science-fiction novel by George Stewart, deals with the human reactions to living when nearly everyone else died.
    • The Catcher in the Rye, 1951 novel by J. D. Salinger
    • Lover, When You're Near Me, 1952 science fiction short story by Richard Matheson on a man being traumatically steered in his will by a woman of a dull extraterrestrial race who covets him sexually
    • Dear Diary, 1954 science fiction short story by Richard Matheson. Diary entries from the years AD 1964, AD 3964, and LXIV (=64) all show the same dissatisfaction with the current situation and the same desire to live either some thousand years later or earlier, that from 3964 also due to the unpleasant inventions of another inhabitant of the writer's plastic skyscraper, which enable him to see her through the walls.
    • The HobbitThe Two Towers and The Return of the King, 1954 and 1955 high fantasy novels by J. R. R. Tolkien. The creature, Gollum, with Dissociative Identity Disorder plays a major role. Also, a magical effect of treasure recently held by a dragon is that individuals susceptible to greed develop a form of greedy paranoia called the Dragon Sickness.
    • The Mind Thing, incomplete 1960 science fiction serialization, later published as a novel, by Fredric Brown. An extraterrestrial being has been sent to Earth as a punishment and tries to influence people's and animal's minds so that they would help it creating the technical means it needs to return home.
    • To Kill A Mockingbird, 1960 novel by Harper Lee
    • Unearthly Neighbors, 1960 science fiction novel by Chad Oliver. The anthropology professor Monte Stewart and the linguist Charlie Jenike get tough towards each other on a hot day after having killed a member of a race between apes and men on a planet of Sirius, together, in revenge for a deadly attack of the man's tribe onto their wives and a colleague. Jenike totally loses his mind and drowns himself in a nearby river, shortly after.
    • One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, 1962 novel by Ken Kesey about the treatment of mental illness [8]
    • Nilo, mi hijo - a 1963 play by Antonio González Caballero[9]
    • The Bell Jar, 1963 novel by Sylvia Plath, a fictionalised account of Plath's own struggles with depression [10]
    • Wide Sargasso Sea, a 1966 retelling of "Jane Eyre" by Jean Rhys
    • Clans of the Alphane Moon, 1964 science-fiction novel by Philip K. Dick. Largely set on a world in which a lost group of former psychiatric patients have organised themselves into caste-like groups along psychiatric diagnostic lines, forming an unusual but functional society.
    • I Never Promised You a Rose Garden, 1964 autobiographical novel by Joanne Greenberg
    • A Wrinkle in the Skin, 1965 post-apocalyptic science fiction novel by John Christopher. The hero and a boy meet a captain who has lost his mind, in his ship on the bottom of the English Channel that has fallen dry through an earthquake. They are welcomed heartily, but forbidden to take any food with them, when they leave.
    • The Bird of Paradise, 1967 [11] work by R. D. Laing, often available with his non-fiction essay The Politics of Experience about schizophrenia and hallucinogenic drugs
    • The Ethics of Madness, 1967 science fiction short story by Larry Niven
    • Bedlam Planet, 1968 science fiction novel by John Brunner. A crew of astronauts tries to live on the animal and vegetable food growing on a planet of Sigma Draconis, which evokes mental disorder, but also sets free survival instincts that have so far been hidden.
    • The Sword, 1968 fantasy short story by Lloyd Alexander. A king who yields to anger, with lethal results, in a moment of weakness. As he grows worse and worse, he also develops a severe case of paranoia, fearing assassination and other revenge plots around every corner.
    • Knots, 1970 work by R.D. Laing
    • Diving into the Wreck, 1973 [12] collection of poetry by Adrienne Rich
    • Sybil, 1973 novel by Flora Rheta Schreiber
    • Breakfast of Champions, 1973 novel by Kurt Vonnegut
    • The Eden Express, 1975 memoir by Mark Vonnegut
    • Woman on the Edge of Time, 1976 novel by Marge Piercy
    • The Language of Goldfish, 1980 young adult novel by Zibby Oneal[13]
    • Norwegian Wood, 1987 novel by Haruki Murakami
    • The Cat Who Went Underground, 1989 detective fiction novel by Lillian Jackson Braun
    • Doom Patrol, a comic book series originating in 1963. During Grant Morrison's 1989 – 1993 run it included the multiple personality affected Crazy Jane and several other characters either insane or in possession of greater truths.
    • American Psycho. 1991 novel by Bret Easton Ellis.
    • Heir to the Empire, Dark Force Rising, and The Last Command, 1991 trilogy of novels by Timothy Zahn. Joruus C'baoth, the clone of a tragic Jedi Master from the final years of the Old Republic, is insane due to his hyperaccelerated physical and mental development.
    • Mariel of Redwall, 1991 fantasy novel by Brian Jacques. Pirate warlord Gabool grows increasingly paranoid about possible threats to his power and develops delusions about a stolen bell.
    • Regeneration, 1991 novel by Pat Barker, based on the historical experiences of the poet Siegfried Sassoon, explores shell-shock and other traumatic illnesses following World War I[14]
    • Amnesia, 1992 novel by Douglas Anthony Cooper
    • She's Come Undone, 1992 novel by Wally Lamb
    • Girl, Interrupted, 1993 memoir by Susanna Kaysen
    • Prozac Nation, 1994 memoir by Elizabeth Wurtzel
    • Effie's Burning, 1995 play [15][16] by Valerie Windsor
    • Maskerade, 1995 comic fantasy/detective fiction novel by Sir Terry Pratchett
    • Myst: The Book of Atrus, 1995 novel (re-released in a 2004 omnibus) by Rand and Robyn Miller with Dave Wingrove. Atrus comes to realize that his father is a megalomaniac.
    • Fight Club, 1996 novel by Chuck Palahniuk
    • The Green Mile, 1996 serial novel by Stephen King
    • Enduring Love, 1997 novel Ian McEwan
    • Glimmer, 1997 [17] novel by Annie Waters
    • Glamorama. 1998 novel by Bret Easton Ellis.
    • I Know This Much Is True, 1998 novel by Wally Lamb
    • Willow Weep for Me: A Black Woman's Journey Through Depression, 1998 memoir by Meri Nana-Ama Danquah.
    • Cut, 2000 novel by Patricia McCormick
    • Borderline, 2000 novel by Marie-Sissi Labrèche
    • La Brèche, 2002 novel by Marie-Sissi Labrèche
    • Oxygen and The Fifth Man, 2001 and 2002 science fiction duology by Randall S. Ingermanson and John B. Olson. One of the astronauts on a Mars mission grows increasingly paranoid.
    • Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, 2003 fantasy/bildungsroman novel by J. K. Rowling, includes a scene with a couple who both have profound dementia resulting from prolonged magical torture.
    • The Unifying Force, 2003 science fiction novel by James Luceno.
    • The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Nighttime, 2003 novel by Mark Haddon
    • The Good Patient: A Novel, 2004 [18] novel by Kristin Waterfield Duisberg
    • Set This House in Order, a 2004 novel by Matt Ruff. Revolving around a romance between two characters with multiple personalities.
    • Hello, Serotonin, 2004 work by Jon Paul Fiorentino
    • High Rhulain, 2005 fantasy novel by Brian Jacques. Between his battle injuries and a traumatic bereavement, Long Patrol Major Cuthbert Blanedaale Frunk has developed Dissociative Identity Disorder.
    • Human Traces, 2005 novel by Sebastian Faulks. Two psychiatrists set in the late 19th and early 20th century. [19]
    • Love Creeps, 2005 novel by Amanda Filipacchi. A comedic book about a love triangle who are stalking each other.
    • A Spot of Bother, 2006 novel by Mark Haddon, written from the point of view of a 57-year-old hypochondriac man who suffers from extreme panic attacks and also develops dementia
    • Darkness Descending, 2007 [20] novel by Bethann Korsmit about a man who suffers a mental breakdown and various other mental problems, and the people who help him to overcome the obstacles in his life
    • The Vegetarian, 2007 novel by Han Kang.
    • All in the Mind, 2008 novel by Alastair Campbell which draws on the author's experiences of depression and alcoholism [21]
    • Atmospheric Disturbances, 2009 novel by Rivka Galchen. About a psychiatrist and one of his patients with a mental illness. [22]
    • The Wilderness, 2009 [23] novel by Samantha Harvey about Alzheimer's
    • Radiant Daughter, 2010 novel by Patricia Grossman. A story that is about a Czech family with a daughter who is suffering from bipolar. [24]
    • Blepharospasm, 2011 novel by Harutyun Mackoushian. A story that focuses on a boy suffering from anxiety. [25]
    • A Better Place, 2011 [26] novel by Mark A. Roeder
    • The Heart of Darkness, 2014 novel by Dominic Lyne. Through conversations with his therapist, he tries to make sense of the world around him and his inability to do so pulls him deeper into the depths of his delusions. [27]
    • Challenger Deep, 2015 young adult novel by Neal Shusterman. [28][29] The first half of the book leaves the audience questioning if the plot is real, but it ends up being about mental illnesses. From the point of view of somebody with a mental illness. [30]
    • The Suicide of Claire Bishop, 2015 novel by Carmiel Banasky. Schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, and suicide are main topics. [31]
    • Turtles All The Way Down, 2018 novel by John Green. Aza Holmes, a young woman navigating daily existence within the ever-tightening spiral of her own thoughts. [32]
    • Everything Here Is Beautiful, [33] 2018 novel by Mira T. Lee. An immigrant story, and a young woman’s quest to find fulfillment and a life unconstrained by her illness. [34]
    • Cleopatra in Space 2014-2020 graphic novel series by Mike Maihack. The protagonist, Cleopatra "Cleo" has a bit of ADHD and was written from the beginning as having "depressive disorder." [35]

    Many motion pictures portray mental illness in inaccurate ways, leading to misunderstanding and heightened stigmatization of the mentally ill. However, some movies are lauded for dispelling stereotypes and providing insight into mental illness. In a study by George Gerbner, it was determined that 5 percent of 'normal' television characters are murderers, while 20% of 'mentally-ill' characters are murderers. 40% of normal characters are violent, while 70% of mentally-ill characters are violent. Contrary to what is portrayed in films and television, Henry J. Steadman, Ph.D., and his colleagues at Policy Research Associates found that, overall, formal mental patients did not have a higher rate of violence than the control group of people who were not formal mental patients. In both groups, however, substance abuse was linked to a higher rate of violence. (Hockenbury and Hockenbury, 2004)

    • Psycho, a 1960 American film which features a man who exhibits multiple personality-disorder (includes several prequels or sequels or remakes)
    • Marnie, a 1964 American film which features a woman with obsessive fear and distrust
    • Oil Lamps, a 1971 film by Juraj Herz, based on the same named novel by Jaroslav Havlíček, describing the life of vivacious girl and her matrimony with a sardonic man, who suffer from emerging paralytic dementia
    • Benny & Joon, a 1993 American film which features a woman with schizophrenia
    • Memento, a 2000 psychological thriller film which is about a man with anterograde amnesia which renders his brain unable to store new memories.
    • A Beautiful Mind, a 2001 film which is a fictionalised account of a mathematician with schizophrenia, John Nash[36]
    • The Soloist, a 2009 film depicting the true story of Nathaniel Ayers, a musical prodigy who develops schizophrenia during his second year at Juilliard School, becomes homeless and plays a two stringed violin in the streets of Downtown Los Angeles
    • Silver Linings Playbook, a 2012 film about a bipolar man and his relationship with a depressed young widow. [37]

    Many popular television shows feature characters with a mental health condition. Often these portrayals are inaccurate and reinforce existing stereotypes, thereby increasing stigma associated with having a mental health condition. Common ways that television shows can generate misunderstanding and fear are by depicting people with these conditions as medically noncompliant, violent, and/or intellectually challenged. However, in recent years certain organizations have begun to advocate for accurate portrayals of mental health conditions in the media, and certain television shows have been applauded by mental health organizations for helping to dispel myths of these conditions.

    One show, Wonderland, went on the air in 2000 and only lasted several episodes. It was largely critically acclaimed, but pressure from mental health advocates and people with mental health conditions, who felt that the show perpetuated stereotypes and contributed to the stigma attached to them, led to the show's cancellation.

    The Scandinavian crime drama The Bridge features multiple examples of mental illness, most prominently including Münchausen syndrome by proxy.

    In 2005, the shows Huff Monk Scrubs and ER all won Voice Awards from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration for their positive portrayal of people who manage mental health conditions. Neal Baer, executive producer of ER and Law & Order: Special Victims Unit also won a lifetime achievement award for his work in incorporating mental health issues into these two shows.

    The Steven Universe franchise features characters with psychological trauma.

    The game Silent Hill 2 of the same genres contains three major characters struggling with mental illness. Though their conditions are never named, two of these characters exhibit symptoms which, together with their backstories, may suggest acute dissociative amnesia while the third character most definitively approximates body dysmorphic disorder. (The topic of dissociative amnesia is revisited in later installments of the series.) In addition, both this game and Silent Hill 3 mention various former patients of the now-abandoned town's local psychiatric hospital, with one said patient making an appearance in the latter game.

    Life is Strange deals with depression, suicide most notably, as the main character Max tries to prevent the suicide of one of her friends. One of the characters exhibits concerning behaviors and is prescribed medicines most often associated with bipolar and schizophrenia. It is implied he is seeing a psychiatrist.


    Treatment [ edit | edit source ]

    Many forms of amnesia fix themselves without being treated. ⎦] Template:Unreliable medical source? However, there are a few ways to cope with memory loss if that is not the case. One of these ways is cognitive or occupational therapy. In therapy, amnesiacs will develop the memory skills they have and try to regain some they have lost by finding which techniques help retrieve memories or create new retrieval paths. ⎧] This may also include strategies for organizing information to remember it more easily and for improving understanding of lengthy conversation. ⎨]

    Another coping mechanism is taking advantage of technological assistance, such as a personal digital device to keep track of day-to-day tasks. Reminders can be set up for appointments when to take medications, birthdays and other important events. Many pictures can also be stored to help amnesiacs remember names of friends, family, and co-workers. ⎧] Notebooks, wall calendars, pill reminders and photographs of people and places are low-tech memory aids that can help as well. ⎨]

    While there are no medications available to treat amnesia, underlying medical conditions can be treated to improve memory. Such conditions include but are not limited to low thyroid function, liver or kidney disease, stroke, depression, bipolar disorder and blood clots in the brain. ⎩] Template:Unreliable medical source? Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome involves a lack of thiamin and replacing this vitamin by consuming thiamin-rich foods such as whole-grain cereals, legumes (beans and lentils), nuts, lean pork, and yeast. ⎦] Template:Better source needed Treating alcoholism and preventing alcohol and illicit drug use can prevent further damage, but in most cases will not recover lost memory. ⎨]

    Although improvements occur when patients receive certain treatments, there is still no actual cure remedy for amnesia so far. To what extent the patient recovers and how long the amnesia will continue depends on the type and severity of the lesion. ⎪]


    Watch the video: The Caretaker - Everywhere At The End Of Time - Stages 1-6 Complete (May 2022).